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  1. Abstract

    Identifying mechanisms by which bacterial species evolve and maintain genomic diversity is particularly challenging for the uncultured lineages that dominate the surface ocean. A longitudinal analysis of bacterial genes, genomes, and transcripts during a coastal phytoplankton bloom revealed two co-occurring, highly relatedRhodobacteraceaespecies from the deeply branching and uncultured NAC11-7 lineage. These have identical 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, yet their genome contents assembled from metagenomes and single cells indicate species-level divergence. Moreover, shifts in relative dominance of the species during dynamic bloom conditions over 7 weeks confirmed the syntopic species’ divergent responses to the same microenvironment at the same time. Genes unique to each species and genes shared but divergent in per-cell inventories of mRNAs accounted for 5% of the species’ pangenome content. These analyses uncover physiological and ecological features that differentiate the species, including capacities for organic carbon utilization, attributes of the cell surface, metal requirements, and vitamin biosynthesis. Such insights into the coexistence of highly related and ecologically similar bacterial species in their shared natural habitat are rare.

  2. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an abundant organic sulfur metabolite produced by many phytoplankton species and degraded by bacteria via two distinct pathways with climate‐relevant implications. We assessed the diversity and abundance of bacteria possessing these pathways in the context of phytoplankton community composition over a 3‐week time period spanning September–October, 2014 in Monterey Bay, CA. The dmdA gene from the DMSP demethylation pathway dominated the DMSP gene pool and was harboured mostly by members of the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 clade and secondarily by the Roseobacter group, particularly during the second half of the study. Novel members of the DMSP‐degrading community emerged from dmdA sequences recovered from metagenome assemblies and single‐cell sequencing, including largely uncharacterized gammaproteobacteria and alphaproteobacteria taxa. In the DMSP cleavage pathway, the SAR11 gene dddK was the most abundant early in the study, but was supplanted by dddP over time. SAR11 members, especially those harbouring genes for both DMSP degradation pathways, had a strong positive relationship with the abundance of dinoflagellates, and DMSP‐degrading gammaproteobacteria co‐occurred with haptophytes. This in situ study of the drivers of DMSP fate in a coastal ecosystem demonstrates for the first time correlations between specific groups of bacterial DMSP degraders and phytoplankton taxa.
  3. Abstract

    Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic time-series data covering a 52-day period in the fall of 2016 provide an inventory of bacterial and archaeal community genes, transcripts, and taxonomy during an intense dinoflagellate bloom in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The dataset comprises 84 metagenomes (0.8 terabases), 82 metatranscriptomes (1.1 terabases), and 88 16S rRNA amplicon libraries from samples collected on 41 dates. The dataset also includes 88 18S rRNA amplicon libraries, characterizing the taxonomy of the eukaryotic community during the bloom. Accompanying the sequence data are chemical and biological measurements associated with each sample. These datasets will facilitate studies of the structure and function of marine bacterial communities during episodic phytoplankton blooms.