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Creators/Authors contains: "Pan, Xiaoqing"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Oxide solid electrolytes (OSEs) have the potential to achieve improved safety and energy density for lithium-ion batteries, but their high grain-boundary (GB) resistance generally is a bottleneck. In the well-studied perovskite oxide solid electrolyte, Li3xLa2/3-xTiO3(LLTO), the ionic conductivity of grain boundaries is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of the bulk. In contrast, the related Li0.375Sr0.4375Ta0.75Zr0.25O3(LSTZ0.75) perovskite exhibits low grain boundary resistance for reasons yet unknown. Here, we use aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy, along with an active learning moment tensor potential, to reveal the atomic scale structure and composition of LSTZ0.75 grain boundaries. Vibrational electron energy loss spectroscopy is applied for the first time to reveal atomically resolved vibrations at grain boundaries of LSTZ0.75 and to characterize the otherwise unmeasurable Li distribution therein. We find that Li depletion, which is a major reason for the low grain boundary ionic conductivity of LLTO, is absent for the grain boundaries of LSTZ0.75. Instead, the low grain boundary resistivity of LSTZ0.75 is attributed to the formation of a nanoscale defective cubic perovskite interfacial structure that contained abundant vacancies. Our study provides new insights into the atomic scale mechanisms of low grain boundary resistivity.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 18, 2024
  6. Abstract The enhanced compositional flexibility to incorporate multiple-principal cations in high entropy oxides (HEOs) offers the opportunity to expand boundaries for accessible compositions and unconventional properties in oxides. Attractive functionalities have been reported in some bulk HEOs, which are attributed to the long-range compositional homogeneity, lattice distortion, and local chemical bonding characteristics in materials. However, the intricate details of local composition fluctuation, metal-oxygen bond distortion and covalency are difficult to visualize experimentally, especially on the atomic scale. Here, we study the atomic structure-chemical bonding-property correlations in a series of perovskite-HEOs utilizing the recently developed four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques which enables to determine the structure, chemical bonding, electric field, and charge density on the atomic scale. The existence of compositional fluctuations along with significant composition-dependent distortion of metal-oxygen bonds is observed. Consequently, distinct variations of metal-oxygen bonding covalency are shown by the real-space charge-density distribution maps with sub-ångström resolution. The observed atomic features not only provide a realistic picture of the local physico-chemistry of chemically complex HEOs but can also be directly correlated to their distinctive magneto-electronic properties.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  9. Atomically dispersed catalysts have been shown highly active for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). However, their stability has been less than ideal. We show here that the introduction of a structural component to minimize diffusion of the active metal center can greatly improve the stability without compromising the activity. Using an Ir dinuclear heterogeneous catalyst (DHC) as a study platform, we identify two types of oxygen species, interfacial and bridge, that work in concert to enable both activity and stability. The work sheds important light on the synergistic effect between the active metal center and the supporting substrate and may find broad applications for the use of atomically dispersed catalysts.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2024
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