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  1. Transformer models using segment-based processing have been an effective architecture for simultaneous speech translation. However, such models create a context mismatch between training and inference environments, hindering potential translation accuracy. We solve this issue by proposing Shiftable Context, a simple yet effective scheme to ensure that consistent segment and context sizes are maintained throughout training and inference, even with the presence of partially filled segments due to the streaming nature of simultaneous translation. Shiftable Context is also broadly applicable to segment-based transformers for streaming tasks. Our experiments on the English-German, English-French, and English-Spanish language pairs from the MUST-C dataset demonstrate that when applied to the Augmented Memory Transformer, a state-of-the-art model for simultaneous speech translation, the proposed scheme achieves an average increase of 2.09, 1.83, and 1.95 BLEU scores across each wait-k value for the three language pairs, respectively, with a minimal impact on computation-aware Average Lagging. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
    Machine learning applied to architecture design presents a promising opportunity with broad applications. Recent deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques, in particular, enable efficient exploration in vast design spaces where conventional design strategies may be inadequate. This paper proposes a novel deep reinforcement framework, taking routerless networks-on-chip (NoC) as an evaluation case study. The new framework successfully resolves problems with prior design approaches, which are either unreliable due to random searches or inflexible due to severe design space restrictions. The framework learns (near-)optimal loop placement for routerless NoCs with various design constraints. A deep neural network is developed using parallel threads that efficiently explore the immense routerless NoC design space with a Monte Carlo search tree. Experimental results show that, compared with conventional mesh, the proposed deep reinforcement learning (DRL) routerless design achieves a 3.25x increase in throughput, 1.6x reduction in packet latency, and 5x reduction in power. Compared with the state-of-the-art routerless NoC, DRL achieves a 1.47x increase in throughput, 1.18x reduction in packet latency, 1.14x reduction in average hop count, and 6.3% lower power consumption. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Architectural optimizations in general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) often exploit workload characteristics to reduce power and latency while improving performance. This paper finds, however, that prevailing assumptions about GPGPU traffic pattern characterization are inaccurate. These assumptions must therefore be re-evaluated, and more appropriate new patterns must be identified. This paper proposes a methodology to classify GPGPU traffic patterns, combining a convolutional neural network (CNN) for feature extraction and a t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm to determine traffic pattern clusters. A traffic pattern dataset is generated from common GPGPU benchmarks, transformed using heat mapping, and iteratively refined to ensure appropriate and highly accurate labels. The proposed classification model achieves 98.8% validation accuracy and 94.24% test accuracy. Furthermore, traffic in 96.6% of examined kernels can be classified into the eight identified traffic pattern categories. 
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