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    We present an overview and data release of the spectral line component of the SMA Large Program, CMZoom. CMZoom observed 12CO (2–1), 13CO (2–1), and C18O (2–1), three transitions of H2CO, several transitions of CH3OH, two transitions of OCS, and single transitions of SiO and SO within gas above a column density of N(H2) ≥ 1023 cm−2 in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; inner few hundred pc of the Galaxy). We extract spectra from all compact 1.3 mm CMZoom continuum sources and fit line profiles to the spectra. We use the fit results from the H2CO 3(0, 3)–2(0, 2) transition to determine the source kinematic properties. We find ∼90 per cent of the total mass of CMZoom sources have reliable kinematics. Only four compact continuum sources are formally self-gravitating. The remainder are consistent with being in hydrostatic equilibrium assuming that they are confined by the high external pressure in the CMZ. We find only two convincing proto-stellar outflows, ruling out a previously undetected population of very massive, actively accreting YSOs with strong outflows. Finally, despite having sufficient sensitivity and resolution to detect high-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs), which have been claimed as evidence for intermediate mass black holes interacting with molecular gas clouds, we find no suchmore »objects across the large survey area.

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  2. Abstract

    Wide-field near-infrared (NIR) polarimetry was used to examine disk systems around two brown dwarfs (BDs) and two young stellar objects (YSOs) embedded in the Heiles Cloud 2 (HCl2) dark molecular cloud in Taurus as well as numerous stars located behind HCl2. Inclined disks exhibit intrinsic NIR polarization due to scattering of photospheric light, which is detectable even for unresolved systems. After removing polarization contributions from magnetically aligned dust in HCl2 determined from the background star information, significant intrinsic polarization was detected from the disk systems of one BD (ITG 17) and both YSOs (ITG 15, ITG 25), but not from the other BD (2M0444). The ITG 17 BD shows good agreement of the disk orientation inferred from the NIR and from published Atacama Large Millimeter/submillieter Array dust continuum imaging. ITG 17 was also found to reside in a 5200 au wide binary (or hierarchical quad star system) with the ITG 15 YSO disk system. The inferred disk orientations from the NIR for ITG 15 and ITG 17 are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the local magnetic field direction. The multiplicity of the system and the large BD disk nature could have resulted from formation in an environmentmore »characterized by misalignment of the magnetic field and the protostellar disks.

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  3. Abstract Using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), we have conducted a survey for 22 GHz, 6 1,6 –5 2,3 H 2 O masers toward the Serpens South region. The masers were also observed with the Very Long Baseline Array following the VLA detections. We detect for the first time H 2 O masers in the Serpens South region that are found to be associated to three Class 0–Class I objects, including the two brightest protostars in the Serpens South cluster, known as CARMA-6 and CARMA-7. We also detect H 2 O masers associated to a source with no outflow or jet features. We suggest that this source is most probably a background asymptotic giant branch star projected in the direction of Serpens South. The spatial distribution of the emission spots suggest that the masers in the three Class 0–Class I objects emerge very close to the protostars and are likely excited in shocks driven by the interaction between a protostellar jet and the circumstellar material. Based on the comparison of the distributions of bolometric luminosity of sources hosting 22 GHz H 2 O masers and 162 young stellar objects covered by our observations, we identify a limitmore »of L Bol ≈ 10 L ⊙ for a source to host water masers. However, the maser emission shows strong variability in both intensity and velocity spread, and therefore masers associated to lower-luminosity sources may have been missed by our observations. We also report 11 new sources with radio continuum emission at 22 GHz.« less
  4. ABSTRACT Measuring interstellar magnetic fields is extremely important for understanding their role in different evolutionary stages of interstellar clouds and star formation. However, detecting the weak field is observationally challenging. We present measurements of the Zeeman effect in the 1665 and 1667 MHz (18 cm) lines of the hydroxyl radical (OH) lines towards the dense photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the compact H ii region DR 21 (Main). From the OH 18 cm absorption, observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we find that the line-of-sight magnetic field in this region is ∼0.13 mG. The same transitions in maser emission towards the neighbouring DR 21(OH) and W 75S-FR1 regions also exhibit the Zeeman splitting. Along with the OH data, we use [C ii] 158 μm line and hydrogen radio recombination line data to constrain the physical conditions and the kinematics of the region. We find the OH column density to be ∼3.6 × 1016(Tex/25 K) cm−2, and that the 1665 and 1667 MHz absorption lines are originating from the gas where OH and C+ are co-existing in the PDR. Under reasonable assumptions, we find the measured magnetic field strength for the PDR to be lower than the value expected from the commonly discussed density–magnetic field relation while the field strength values estimated frommore »the maser emission are roughly consistent with the same. Finally, we compare the magnetic field energy density with the overall energetics of DR 21’s PDR and find that, in its current evolutionary stage, the magnetic field is not dynamically important.« less
  5. Abstract Star formation primarily occurs in filaments where magnetic fields are expected to be dynamically important. The largest and densest filaments trace the spiral structure within galaxies. Over a dozen of these dense (∼10 4 cm −3 ) and long (>10 pc) filaments have been found within the Milky Way, and they are often referred to as “bones.” Until now, none of these bones has had its magnetic field resolved and mapped in its entirety. We introduce the SOFIA legacy project FIELDMAPS which has begun mapping ∼10 of these Milky Way bones using the HAWC+ instrument at 214 μ m and 18.″2 resolution. Here we present a first result from this survey on the ∼60 pc long bone G47. Contrary to some studies of dense filaments in the Galactic plane, we find that the magnetic field is often not perpendicular to the spine (i.e., the center line of the bone). Fields tend to be perpendicular in the densest areas of active star formation and more parallel or random in other areas. The average field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the Galactic plane or the bone. The magnetic field strengths along the spine typically vary from ∼20 to ∼100 μmore »G. Magnetic fields tend to be strong enough to suppress collapse along much of the bone, but for areas that are most active in star formation, the fields are notably less able to resist gravitational collapse.« less
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  7. Abstract In this paper, we present the first results from a CARMA high-resolution 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) molecular line survey of the North America and Pelican (NAP) Nebulae. CARMA observations have been combined with single-dish data from the Purple Mountain 13.7 m telescope, to add short spacings and to produce high-dynamic-range images. We find that the molecular gas is predominantly shaped by the W80 H ii bubble, driven by an O star. Several bright rims noted in the observation are probably remnant molecular clouds, heated and stripped by the massive star. Matching these rims in molecular lines and optical images, we construct a model of the three-dimensional structure of the NAP complex. Two groups of molecular clumps/filaments are on the near side of the bubble: one is being pushed toward us, whereas the other is moving toward the bubble. Another group is on the far side of the bubble, and moving away. The young stellar objects in the Gulf region reside in three different clusters, each hosted by a cloud from one of the three molecular clump groups. Although all gas content in the NAP is impacted by feedback from the central O star, some regionsmore »show no signs of star formation, while other areas clearly exhibit star formation activity. Additional molecular gas being carved by feedback includes cometary structures in the Pelican Head region, and the boomerang features at the boundary of the Gulf region. The results show that the NAP complex is an ideal place for the study of feedback effects on star formation.« less
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    ABSTRACT G0.253+0.016, aka ‘the Brick’, is one of the most massive (>105 M⊙) and dense (>104 cm−3) molecular clouds in the Milky Way’s Central Molecular Zone. Previous observations have detected tentative signs of active star formation, most notably a water maser that is associated with a dust continuum source. We present ALMA Band 6 observations with an angular resolution of 0.13 arcsec (1000 AU) towards this ‘maser core’ and report unambiguous evidence of active star formation within G0.253+0.016. We detect a population of eighteen continuum sources (median mass ∼2 M⊙), nine of which are driving bi-polar molecular outflows as seen via SiO (5–4) emission. At the location of the water maser, we find evidence for a protostellar binary/multiple with multidirectional outflow emission. Despite the high density of G0.253+0.016, we find no evidence for high-mass protostars in our ALMA field. The observed sources are instead consistent with a cluster of low-to-intermediate-mass protostars. However, the measured outflow properties are consistent with those expected for intermediate-to-high-mass star formation. We conclude that the sources are young and rapidly accreting, and may potentially form intermediate- and high-mass stars in the future. The masses and projected spatial distribution of the cores are generally consistent with thermal fragmentation, suggesting that themore »large-scale turbulence and strong magnetic field in the cloud do not dominate on these scales, and that star formation on the scale of individual protostars is similar to that in Galactic disc environments.« less