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Creators/Authors contains: "Policelli, Nahuel"

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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    Nonnative conifers are widespread in the southern hemisphere, where their use as plantation species has led to adverse ecosystem impacts sometimes intensified by invasion. Mechanical removal is a common strategy used to reduce or eliminate the negative impacts of nonnative conifers, and encourage native regeneration. However, a variety of factors may preclude active ecological restoration following removal. As a result, passive restoration – unassisted natural vegetation regeneration – is common following conifer removal. We asked, ‘what is the response of understorey cover to removal of nonnative conifer stands followed by passive restoration?' We sampled understorey cover in three site types: two‐ to ten‐year‐old clearcuts, native forest and current plantations. We then grouped understorey species by origin (native/nonnative) and growth form, and compared proportion and per cent cover of these groups as well as of bare ground and litter between the three site types. For clearcuts, we also analysed the effect of time since clearcut on the studied variables. We found that clearcuts had a significantly higher average proportion of nonnative understorey vegetation cover than native forest sites, where nonnative vegetation was nearly absent. The understorey of clearcut sites also averaged more overall vegetation cover and more nonnative vegetation cover (in particular nonnative shrubs and herbaceous species) than either plantation or native forest sites. Notably, 99% of nonnative shrub cover in clearcuts was the invasive nonnative species Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius). After ten years of passive recovery since clearcutting, the proportion of understorey vegetation cover that is native has not increased and remains far below the proportion observed in native forest sites. Reduced natural regeneration capacity of the native ecosystem, presence of invasive species in the surrounding landscape and land‐use legacies from plantation forestry may inhibit native vegetation recovery and benefit opportunistic invasives, limiting the effectiveness of passive restoration in this context.

    Abstract in Spanish is available with online material.

     
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  3. Summary

    Belowground biota can deeply influence plant invasion. The presence of appropriate soil mutualists can act as a driver to enable plants to colonize new ranges. We reviewed the species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) that facilitate pine establishment in both native and non‐native ranges, and that are associated with their invasion into nonforest settings. We found that one particular group ofEMF, suilloid fungi, uniquely drive pine invasion in the absence of otherEMF. Although the association with otherEMFis variable, suilloidEMFare always associated with invasive pines, particularly at early invasion, when invasive trees are most vulnerable. We identified five main ecological traits of suilloid fungi that may explain their key role at pine invasions: their long‐distance dispersal capacity, the establishment of positive biotic interactions with mammals, their capacity to generate a resistant spore bank, their rapid colonization of roots and their long‐distance exploration type. These results suggest that the identity of mycorrhizal fungi and their ecological interactions, rather than simply the presence of compatible fungi, are key to the understanding of plant invasion processes and their success or failure. Particularly for pines, their specific association with suilloid fungi determines their invasion success in previously uninvaded ecosystems.

     
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