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  1. Sub-Neptunes are common among the discovered exoplanets. However, lack of knowledge on the state of matter inH2O-rich setting at high pressures and temperatures (PT) places important limitations on our understanding of this planet type. We have conducted experiments for reactions betweenSiO2andH2O as archetypal materials for rock and ice, respectively, at highPT. We found anomalously expanded volumes of dense silica (up to 4%) recovered from hydrothermal synthesis above ∼24 GPa where theCaCl2-type (Ct) structure appears at lower pressures than in the anhydrous system. Infrared spectroscopy identified strong OH modes from the dense silica samples. Both previous experiments and our density functional theory calculations support up to 0.48 hydrogen atoms per formula unit of (Si1xH4x)O2(x=0.12). At pressures above 60 GPa,H2O further changes the structural behavior of silica, stabilizing a niccolite-type structure, which is unquenchable. From unit-cell volume and phase equilibrium considerations, we infer that the niccolite-type phase may contain H with an amount at least comparable with or higher than that of the Ct phase. Our results suggest that the phases containing both hydrogen and lithophile elements could bemore »the dominant materials in the interiors of water-rich planets. Even for fully layered cases, the large mutual solubility could make the boundary between rock and ice layers fuzzy. Therefore, the physical properties of the new phases that we report here would be important for understanding dynamics, geochemical cycle, and dynamo generation in water-rich planets.

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  2. Abstract

    Metallic glasses are expected to have quite tunable structures in their configuration space, without the strict constraints of a well-defined crystalline symmetry and large energy barriers separating different states in crystals. However, effectively modulating the structure of metallic glasses is rather difficult. Here, using complementary in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques, we reveal thermal-driven structural ordering in a Ce65Al10Co25metallic glass, and a reverse disordering process via a pressure-induced rejuvenation between two states with distinct structural order characteristics. Studies on other metallic glass samples with different compositions also show similar phenomena. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of two-way structural tuning states in terms of their dramatic ordering and disordering far beyond the nearest-neighbor shells with the combination of temperature and pressure, extending accessible states of metallic glasses to unexplored configuration spaces.