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  1. Urbanization affects vegetation within city administrative boundary and nearby rural areas. Gross primary production (GPP) of vegetation in global urban areas is one of important metrics for assessing the impacts of urbanization on terrestrial ecosystems. To date, very limited data and information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of GPP in the global urban areas are available. In this study, we reported the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of annual GPP during 2000–2016 from 8,182 gridcells (0.5° by 0.5° latitude and longitude) that have various proportion of urban areas. Approximately 79.3% of these urban gridcells had increasing trends of annual GPP during 2000-2016. As urban area proportion (%) within individual urban gridcells increased, the means of annual GPP trends also increased. Our results suggested that for those urban gridcells, the negative effect of urban expansion (often measured by impervious surfaces) on GPP was to large degree compensated by increased vegetation within the gridcells, mostly driven by urban management and local climate and environment. Our findings on the continued increases of annual GPP in most of urban gridcells shed new insight on the importance of urban areas on terrestrial carbon cycle and the potential of urban management and local climate and environment on improving vegetation in urban areas. 
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  2. Abstract. Data and knowledge of surface water bodies (SWB), including large lakes andreservoirs (surface water areas > 1 km2), are critical forthe management and sustainability of water resources. However, the existingglobal or national dam datasets have large georeferenced coordinate offsetsfor many reservoirs, and some datasets have not reported reservoirs andlakes separately. In this study, we generated China's surface water bodies,Large Dams, Reservoirs, and Lakes (China-LDRL) dataset by analyzing allavailable Landsat imagery in 2019 (19 338 images) in Google Earth Engine andvery-high spatial resolution imagery in Google Earth Pro. There were∼ 3.52 × 106 yearlong SWB polygons in China for2019, only 0.01 × 106 of them (0.43 %) were of large size(> 1 km2). The areas of these large SWB polygons accountedfor 83.54 % of the total 214.92 × 103 km2 yearlongsurface water area (SWA) in China. We identified 2418 large dams, including624 off-stream dams and 1794 on-stream dams, 2194 large reservoirs (16.35 × 103 km2), and 3051 large lakes (73.38 × 103 km2). In general, most of the dams and reservoirs in Chinawere distributed in South China, East China, and Northeast China, whereasmost of lakes were located in West China, the lower Yangtze River basin, andNortheast China. The provision of the reliable, accurate China-LDRL dataseton large reservoirs/dams and lakes will enhance our understanding of waterresources management and water security in China. The China-LDRL dataset ispublicly available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.16964656.v3 (Wang et al., 2021b). 
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