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  1. Abstract

    We use molecular line data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, Submillimeter Array, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and NANTEN2 to study the multiscale (∼15–0.005 pc) velocity statistics in the massive star formation region NGC 6334. We find that the nonthermal motions revealed by the velocity dispersion function (VDF) stay supersonic over scales of several orders of magnitude. The multiscale nonthermal motions revealed by different instruments do not follow the same continuous power law, which is because the massive star formation activities near central young stellar objects have increased the nonthermal motions in small-scale and high-density regions. The magnitudes of VDFs vary in different gas materials at the same scale, where the infrared dark clump N6334S in an early evolutionary stage shows a lower level of nonthermal motions than other more evolved clumps due to its more quiescent star formation activity. We find possible signs of small-scale-driven (e.g., by gravitational accretion or outflows) supersonic turbulence in clump N6334IV with a three-point VDF analysis. Our results clearly show that the scaling relation of velocity fields in NGC 6334 deviates from a continuous and universal turbulence cascade due to massive star formation activities.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    We present ALMA dust polarization and molecular line observations toward four clumps (I(N), I, IV, and V) in the massive star-forming region NGC 6334. In conjunction with large-scale dust polarization and molecular line data from JCMT, Planck, and NANTEN2, we make a synergistic analysis of relative orientations between magnetic fields (θB), column density gradients (θNG), local gravity (θLG), and velocity gradients (θVG) to investigate the multi-scale (from ∼30 to 0.003 pc) physical properties in NGC 6334. We find that the relative orientation betweenθBandθNGchanges from statistically more perpendicular to parallel as column density (NH2) increases, which is a signature of trans-to-sub-Alfvénic turbulence at complex/cloud scales as revealed by previous numerical studies. BecauseθNGandθLGare preferentially aligned within the NGC 6334 cloud, we suggest that the more parallel alignment betweenθBandθNGat higherNH2is because the magnetic field line is dragged by gravity. At even higherNH2, the angle betweenθBandθNGorθLGtransits back to having no preferred orientation, or statistically slightly more perpendicular, suggesting that the magnetic field structure is impacted by star formation activities. A statistically more perpendicular alignment is found betweenθBandθVGthroughout our studiedNH2range, which indicates a trans-to-sub-Alfvénic state at small scales as well, and this signifies that magnetic field has an important role in the star formation process in NGC 6334. The normalized mass-to-flux ratio derived from the polarization-intensity gradient (KTH) method increases withNH2, but the KTH method may fail at highNH2due to the impact of star formation feedback.

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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract We have obtained sensitive dust continuum polarization observations at 850 μ m in the B213 region of Taurus using POL-2 on SCUBA-2 at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the B -fields in STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. These observations allow us to probe magnetic field ( B -field) at high spatial resolution (∼2000 au or ∼0.01 pc at 140 pc) in two protostellar cores (K04166 and K04169) and one prestellar core (Miz-8b) that lie within the B213 filament. Using the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, we estimate the B -field strengths in K04166, K04169, and Miz-8b to be 38 ± 14, 44 ± 16, and 12 ± 5 μ G, respectively. These cores show distinct mean B -field orientations. The B -field in K04166 is well ordered and aligned parallel to the orientations of the core minor axis, outflows, core rotation axis, and large-scale uniform B -field, in accordance with magnetically regulated star formation via ambipolar diffusion taking place in K04166. The B -field in K04169 is found to be ordered but oriented nearly perpendicular to the core minor axis and large-scale B -field and not well correlated with other axes. In contrast, Miz-8b exhibits a disordered B -field that shows no preferred alignment with the core minor axis or large-scale field. We found that only one core, K04166, retains a memory of the large-scale uniform B -field. The other two cores, K04169 and Miz-8b, are decoupled from the large-scale field. Such a complex B -field configuration could be caused by gas inflow onto the filament, even in the presence of a substantial magnetic flux. 
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