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  1. Bentley, Barry L. (Ed.)

    This study investigates thermomechanical stress in cryopreservation by vitrification of the heart, while exploring the effects of nanowarming-assisted recovery from cryogenic storage. This study expands upon a recently published study, combining experimental investigation and thermal analysis of cryopreservation on a rat heart model. Specifically, this study focuses on scenarios with variable concentrations of silica-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles (sIONPs), while accounting for loading limitations associated with the heart physiology, as well as the properties of cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution and the geometry of the container. Results of this study suggest that variable sIONP concentration based on the heart physiology will elevate mechanical stresses when compared with the mathematically simplified, uniform distribution case. The most dangerous part of rewarming is below glass transition and at the onset of nanowarming past the glass transition temperature on the way for organ recovery from cryogenic storage. Throughout rewarming, regions that rewarm faster, such as the chambers of the heart (higher sIONP concentration), undergo compressive stresses, while the slower rewarming regions, such as the heart myocardium (low sIONP concentration), undergo tension. Being a brittle material, the vitrified organ is expected to fail under tension in lower stresses than in compression. Unfortunately, the location and magnitude of the maximum stress in the investigated cases varied, while general rules were not identified. This investigation demonstrates the need to tailor the thermal protocol of heart cryopreservation on a case-by-case basis, since the location, orientation, magnitude, and instant at which the maximum mechanical stress is found cannot be predicteda priori. While thermomechanical stress poses a significant risk to organ integrity, careful design of the thermal protocol can be instrumental in reducing the likelihood of structural damage, while taking full advantage of the benefits of nanowarming.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 16, 2024
  2. Nawab, Yasir (Ed.)

    This study presents a simplified thermal-fluids (TF) mathematical model to analyze large surface deformations in cryoprotective agents (CPA) during cryopreservation by vitrification. The CPA deforms during vitrification due to material flow caused by the combined effects of thermal gradients within the domain, thermal contraction due to temperature, and exponential increase in the viscosity of the CPA as it is cooled towards glass transition. While it is well understood that vitrification is associated with thermo-mechanical stress, which might lead to structural damage, those large deformations can lead to stress concentration, further intensifying the probability to structural failure. The results of the TF model are experimentally validated by means of cryomacroscopy on a cuvette containing 7.05M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a representative CPA. The TF model presented in this study is a simplified version of a previously presented thermo-mechanics (TM) model, where the TM model is set to solve the coupled heat transfer, fluid mechanics and solid mechanics problems, while the TF model omits further deformations in the solid state. It is demonstrated in this study that the TF model alone is sufficient to capture large-body deformations during vitrification. However, the TF model alone cannot be used to estimate mechanical stresses, which become significant only when the deformation rates become so small that the deformed body practically behaves as an amorphous solid. This study demonstrates the high sensitivity of deformation predictions to variation in material properties, chief among which are the variations of density and viscosity with temperature. Finally, this study includes a discussion on the possibility of turning on and off the TF and TM models in respective parts of the domain, in order to solve the multiphysics problem in a computationally cost-effective manner.

     
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  3. Abstract This study explores thermal design aspects of nanowarming-assisted recovery of the heart from indefinite cryogenic storage, where nanowarming is the volumetric heating effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticles excited by a radio frequency electromagnet field. This study uses computational means while focusing on the human heart and the rat heart models. The underlying nanoparticle loading characteristics are adapted from a recent, proof-of-concept experimental study. While uniformly distributed nanoparticles can lead to uniform rewarming, and thereby minimize adverse effects associated with ice crystallization and thermomechanical stress, the combined effects of heart anatomy and nanoparticle loading limitations present practical challenges which this study comes to address. Results of this study demonstrate that under such combined effects, nonuniform nanoparticles warming may lead to a subcritical rewarming rate in some parts of the domain, excessive heating in others, and increased exposure potential to cryoprotective agents (CPAs) toxicity. Nonetheless, the results of this study also demonstrate that computerized planning of the cryopreservation protocol and container design can help mitigate the associated adverse effects, with examples relating to adjusting the CPA and/or nanoparticle concentration, and selecting heart container geometry, and size. In conclusion, nanowarming may provide superior conditions for organ recovery from cryogenic storage under carefully selected conditions, which comes with an elevated complexity of protocol planning and optimization. 
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  4. Abstract

    To extend the preservation of donor hearts beyond the current 4–6 h, this paper explores heart cryopreservation by vitrification—cryogenic storage in a glass‐like state. While organ vitrification is made possible by using cryoprotective agents (CPA) that inhibit ice during cooling, failure occurs during convective rewarming due to slow and non‐uniform rewarming which causes ice crystallization and/or cracking. Here an alternative, “nanowarming”, which uses silica‐coated iron oxide nanoparticles (sIONPs) perfusion loaded through the vasculature is explored, that allows a radiofrequency coil to rewarm the organ quickly and uniformly to avoid convective failures. Nanowarming has been applied to cells and tissues, and a proof of principle study suggests it is possible in the heart, but proper physical and biological characterization especially in organs is still lacking. Here, using a rat heart model, controlled machine perfusion loading and unloading of CPA and sIONPs, cooling to a vitrified state, and fast and uniform nanowarming without crystallization or cracking is demonstrated. Further, nanowarmed hearts maintain histologic appearance and endothelial integrity superior to convective rewarming and indistinguishable from CPA load/unload control hearts while showing some promising organ‐level (electrical) functional activity. This work demonstrates physically successful heart vitrification and nanowarming and that biological outcomes can be expected to improve by reducing or eliminating CPA toxicity during loading and unloading.

     
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