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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  3. Czumaj, Artur ; Xin, Qin (Ed.)
  4. Czumaj, Artur ; Xin, Qin (Ed.)
  5. Varadarajan, Kasturi ; Wang, Bei (Ed.)
  6. The 2-Wasserstein distance (or RMS distance) is a useful measure of similarity between probability distributions with exciting applications in machine learning. For discrete distributions, the problem of computing this distance can be expressed in terms of finding a minimum-cost perfect matching on a complete bipartite graph given by two multisets of points A, B βŠ‚ ℝ2, with |A| = |B| = n, where the ground distance between any two points is the squared Euclidean distance between them. Although there is a near-linear time relative ∊-approximation algorithm for the case where the ground distance is Euclidean (Sharathkumar and Agarwal, JACM 2020), all existing relative ∊-approximation algorithms for the RMS distance take Ξ©(n3/2) time. This is primarily because, unlike Euclidean distance, squared Euclidean distance is not a metric. In this paper, for the RMS distance, we present a new ∊-approximation algorithm that runs in O(n^5/4 poly{log n, 1/∊}) time. Our algorithm is inspired by a recent approach for finding a minimum-cost perfect matching in bipartite planar graphs (Asathulla et al, TALG 2020). Their algorithm depends heavily on the existence of sublinear sized vertex separators as well as shortest path data structures that require planarity. Surprisingly, we are able to design a similarmore »algorithm for a complete geometric graph that is far from planar and does not have any vertex separators. Central components of our algorithm include a quadtree-based distance that approximates the squared Euclidean distance and a data structure that supports both Hungarian search and augmentation in sublinear time.« less
  7. Transportation cost is an attractive similarity measure between probability distributions due to its many useful theoretical properties. However, solving optimal transport exactly can be prohibitively expensive. Therefore, there has been significant effort towards the design of scalable approximation algorithms. Previous combinatorial results [Sharathkumar, Agarwal STOC '12, Agarwal, Sharathkumar STOC '14] have focused primarily on the design of near-linear time multiplicative approximation algorithms. There has also been an effort to design approximate solutions with additive errors [Cuturi NIPS '13, Altschuler \etal\ NIPS '17, Dvurechensky \etal\, ICML '18, Quanrud, SOSA '19] within a time bound that is linear in the size of the cost matrix and polynomial in C/\delta; here C is the largest value in the cost matrix and \delta is the additive error. We present an adaptation of the classical graph algorithm of Gabow and Tarjan and provide a novel analysis of this algorithm that bounds its execution time by \BigO(\frac{n^2 C}{\delta}+ \frac{nC^2}{\delta^2}). Our algorithm is extremely simple and executes, for an arbitrarily small constant \eps, only \lfloor \frac{2C}{(1-\eps)\delta}\rfloor + 1 iterations, where each iteration consists only of a Dijkstra-type search followed by a depth-first search. We also provide empirical results that suggest our algorithm is competitive with respect tomore »a sequential implementation of the Sinkhorn algorithm in execution time. Moreover, our algorithm quickly computes a solution for very small values of \delta whereas Sinkhorn algorithm slows down due to numerical instability.« less
  8. Given a weighted planar bipartite graph G ( A βˆͺ B , E ) where each edge has an integer edge cost, we give an Γ•( n 4/3 log nC ) time algorithm to compute minimum-cost perfect matching; here C is the maximum edge cost in the graph. The previous best-known planarity exploiting algorithm has a running time of O ( n 3/2 log n ) and is achieved by using planar separators (Lipton and Tarjan ’80). Our algorithm is based on the bit-scaling paradigm (Gabow and Tarjan ’89). For each scale, our algorithm first executes O ( n 1/3 ) iterations of Gabow and Tarjan’s algorithm in O ( n 4/3 ) time leaving only O ( n 2/3 ) vertices unmatched. Next, it constructs a compressed residual graph H with O ( n 2/3 ) vertices and O ( n ) edges. This is achieved by using an r -division of the planar graph G with r = n 2/3 . For each partition of the r -division, there is an edge between two vertices of H if and only if they are connected by a directed path inside the partition. Using existing efficient shortest-path data structures, themore »remaining O ( n 2/3 ) vertices are matched by iteratively computing a minimum-cost augmenting path, each taking Γ•( n 2/3 ) time. Augmentation changes the residual graph, so the algorithm updates the compressed representation for each partition affected by the change in Γ•( n 2/3 ) time. We bound the total number of affected partitions over all the augmenting paths by O ( n 2/3 log n ). Therefore, the total time taken by the algorithm is Γ•( n 4/3 ).« less