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  1. Transfer learning, where the goal is to transfer the well-trained deep learning models from a primary source task to a new task, is a crucial learning scheme for on-device machine learning, due to the fact that IoT/edge devices collect and then process massive data in our daily life. However, due to the tiny memory constraint in IoT/edge devices, such on-device learning requires ultra-small training memory footprint, bringing new challenges for memory-efficient learning. Many existing works solve this problem by reducing the number of trainable parameters. However, this doesn't directly translate to memory-saving since the major bottleneck is the activations, not parameters. To develop memory-efficient on-device transfer learning, in this work, we are the first to approach the concept of transfer learning from a new perspective of intermediate feature reprogramming of a pre-trained model (i.e., backbone). To perform this lightweight and memory-efficient reprogramming, we propose to train a tiny Reprogramming Network (Rep-Net) directly from the new task input data, while freezing the backbone model. The proposed Rep-Net model interchanges the features with the backbone model using an activation connector at regular intervals to mutually benefit both the backbone model and Rep-Net model features. Through extensive experiments, we validate each design specsmore »of the proposed Rep-Net model in achieving highly memory-efficient on-device reprogramming. Our experiments establish the superior performance (i.e., low training memory and high accuracy) of Rep-Net compared to SOTA on-device transfer learning schemes across multiple benchmarks.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 19, 2023
  2. Recent advancements in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have enabled widespread deployment in multiple security-sensitive domains. The need for resource-intensive training and the use of valuable domain-specific training data have made these models the top intellectual property (IP) for model owners. One of the major threats to DNN privacy is model extraction attacks where adversaries attempt to steal sensitive information in DNN models. In this work, we propose an advanced model extraction framework DeepSteal that steals DNN weights remotely for the first time with the aid of a memory side-channel attack. Our proposed DeepSteal comprises two key stages. Firstly, we develop a new weight bit information extraction method, called HammerLeak, through adopting the rowhammer-based fault technique as the information leakage vector. HammerLeak leverages several novel system-level techniques tailored for DNN applications to enable fast and efficient weight stealing. Secondly, we propose a novel substitute model training algorithm with Mean Clustering weight penalty, which leverages the partial leaked bit information effectively and generates a substitute prototype of the target victim model. We evaluate the proposed model extraction framework on three popular image datasets (e.g., CIFAR-10/100/GTSRB) and four DNN architectures (e.g., ResNet-18/34/Wide-ResNetNGG-11). The extracted substitute model has successfully achieved more than 90% testmore »accuracy on deep residual networks for the CIFAR-10 dataset. Moreover, our extracted substitute model could also generate effective adversarial input samples to fool the victim model. Notably, it achieves similar performance (i.e., ~1-2% test accuracy under attack) as white-box adversarial input attack (e.g., PGD/Trades).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 22, 2023
  3. The wide deployment of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in high-performance cloud computing platforms brought to light multi-tenant cloud field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) as a popular choice of accelerator to boost performance due to its hardware reprogramming flexibility. Such a multi-tenant FPGA setup for DNN acceleration potentially exposes DNN interference tasks under severe threat from malicious users. This work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to explore DNN model vulnerabilities in multi-tenant FPGAs. We propose a novel adversarial attack framework: Deep-Dup, in which the adversarial tenant can inject adversarial faults to the DNN model in the victim tenant of FPGA. Specifically, she can aggressively overload the shared power distribution system of FPGA with malicious power-plundering circuits, achieving adversarial weight duplication (AWD) hardware attack that duplicates certain DNN weight packages during data transmission between off-chip memory and on-chip buffer, to hijack the DNN function of the victim tenant. Further, to identify the most vulnerable DNN weight packages for a given malicious objective, we propose a generic vulnerable weight package searching algorithm, called Progressive Differential Evolution Search (P-DES), which is, for the first time, adaptive to both deep learning white-box and black-box attack models. The proposed Deep-Dup is experimentally validatedmore »in a developed multi-tenant FPGA prototype, for two popular deep learning applications, i.e., Object Detection and Image Classification. Successful attacks are demonstrated in six popular DNN architectures (e.g., YOLOv2, ResNet-50, MobileNet, etc.) on three datasets (COCO, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet).« less
  4. Traditional Deep Neural Network (DNN) security is mostly related to the well-known adversarial input example attack.Recently, another dimension of adversarial attack, namely, attack on DNN weight parameters, has been shown to be very powerful. Asa representative one, the Bit-Flip based adversarial weight Attack (BFA) injects an extremely small amount of faults into weight parameters to hijack the executing DNN function. Prior works of BFA focus on un-targeted attacks that can hack all inputs into a random output class by flipping a very small number of weight bits stored in computer memory. This paper proposes the first work oftargetedBFA based (T-BFA) adversarial weight attack on DNNs, which can intentionally mislead selected inputs to a target output class. The objective is achieved by identifying the weight bits that are highly associated with classification of a targeted output through a class-dependent weight bit searching algorithm. Our proposed T-BFA performance is successfully demonstrated on multiple DNN architectures for image classification tasks. For example, by merely flipping 27 out of 88 million weight bits of ResNet-18, our T-BFA can misclassify all the images from Hen class into Goose class (i.e., 100% attack success rate) in ImageNet dataset, while maintaining 59.35% validation accuracy.
  5. Security of machine learning is increasingly becoming a major concern due to the ubiquitous deployment of deep learning in many security-sensitive domains. Many prior studies have shown external attacks such as adversarial examples that tamper the integrity of DNNs using maliciously crafted inputs. However, the security implication of internal threats (i.e., hardware vulnerabilities) to DNN models has not yet been well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate the first hardware-based attack on quantized deep neural networks–DeepHammer–that deterministically induces bit flips in model weights to compromise DNN inference by exploiting the rowhammer vulnerability. DeepHammer performs an aggressive bit search in the DNN model to identify the most vulnerable weight bits that are flippable under system constraints. To trigger deterministic bit flips across multiple pages within a reasonable amount of time, we develop novel system-level techniques that enable fast deployment of victim pages, memory-efficient rowhammering and precise flipping of targeted bits. DeepHammer can deliberately degrade the inference accuracy of the victim DNN system to a level that is only as good as random guess, thus completely depleting the intelligence of targeted DNN systems. We systematically demonstrate our attacks on real systems against 11 DNN architectures with 4 datasets corresponding to different applicationmore »domains. Our evaluation shows that DeepHammer is able to successfully tamper DNN inference behavior at run-time within a few minutes. We further discuss several mitigation techniques from both algorithm and system levels to protect DNNs against such attacks. Our work highlights the need to incorporate security mechanisms in future deep learning systems to enhance the robustness against hardware-based deterministic fault injections.« less
  6. Security of modern Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) is under severe scrutiny as the deployment of these models become widespread in many intelligence-based applications. Most recently, DNNs are attacked through Trojan which can effectively infect the model during the training phase and get activated only through specific input patterns (i.e, trigger) during inference. In this work, for the first time, we propose a novel Targeted Bit Trojan(TBT) method, which can insert a targeted neural Trojan into a DNN through bit-flip attack. Our algorithm efficiently generates a trigger specifically designed to locate certain vulnerable bits of DNN weights stored in main memory (i.e., DRAM). The objective is that once the attacker flips these vulnerable bits, the network still operates with normal inference accuracy with benign input. However, when the attacker activates the trigger by embedding it with any input, the network is forced to classify all inputs to a certain target class. We demonstrate that flipping only several vulnerable bits identified by our method, using available bit-flip techniques (i.e, row-hammer), can transform a fully functional DNN model into a Trojan-infected model. We perform extensive experiments of CIFAR-10, SVHN and ImageNet datasets on both VGG-16 and Resnet-18 architectures. Our proposed TBT could classifymore »92 of test images to a target class with as little as 84 bit-flips out of 88 million weight bits on Resnet-18 for CIFAR10 dataset.« less
  7. Deep Neural Network (DNN) trained by the gradient descent method is known to be vulnerable to maliciously perturbed adversarial input, aka. adversarial attack. As one of the countermeasures against adversarial attacks, increasing the model capacity for DNN robustness enhancement was discussed and reported as an effective approach by many recent works. In this work, we show that shrinking the model size through proper weight pruning can even be helpful to improve the DNN robustness under adversarial attack. For obtaining a simultaneously robust and compact DNN model, we propose a multi-objective training method called Robust Sparse Regularization (RSR), through the fusion of various regularization techniques, including channel-wise noise injection, lasso weight penalty, and adversarial training. We conduct extensive experiments to show the effectiveness of RSR against popular white-box (i.e., PGD and FGSM) and black-box attacks. Thanks to RSR, 85 % weight connections of ResNet-18 can be pruned while still achieving 0.68 % and 8.72 % improvement in clean- and perturbed-data accuracy respectively on CIFAR-10 dataset, in comparison to its PGD adversarial training baseline.
  8. Recently, a new paradigm of the adversarial attack on the quantized neural network weights has attracted great attention, namely, the Bit-Flip based adversarial weight attack, aka. Bit-Flip Attack (BFA). BFA has shown extraordinary attacking ability, where the adversary can malfunction a quantized Deep Neural Network (DNN) as a random guess, through malicious bit-flips on a small set of vulnerable weight bits (e.g., 13 out of 93 millions bits of 8-bit quantized ResNet-18). However, there are no effective defensive methods to enhance the fault-tolerance capability of DNN against such BFA. In this work, we conduct comprehensive investigations on BFA and propose to leverage binarization-aware training and its relaxation - piece-wise clustering as simple and effective countermeasures to BFA. The experiments show that, for BFA to achieve the identical prediction accuracy degradation (e.g., below 11% on CIFAR-10), it requires 19.3× and 480.1× more effective malicious bit-flips on ResNet-20 and VGG-11 respectively, compared to defend-free counterparts.