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  1. Abstract

    Creating materials that do not exist in nature can lead to breakthroughs in science and technology. Magnetic skyrmions are topological excitations that have attracted great attention recently for their potential applications in low power, ultrahigh density memory. A major challenge has been to find materials that meet the dual requirement of small skyrmions stable at room temperature. Here we meet both these goals by developing epitaxial FeGe films with excess Fe using atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) far from thermal equilibrium. Our atomic layer design permits the incorporation of 20% excess Fe while maintaining a non-centrosymmetric crystal structure supported by theoretical calculations and necessary for stabilizing skyrmions. We show that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature, and that the skyrmions have sizes down to 15 nm as imaged by Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The presence of skyrmions coincides with a topological Hall effect-like resistivity. These atomically tailored materials hold promise for future ultrahigh density magnetic memory applications.

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  2. Hall effects in chiral magnets are described in terms of momentum-space and real-space Berry curvatures. 
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  3. The observation of 1 / B -periodic behavior in Kondo insulators and semiconductor quantum wells challenges the conventional wisdom that quantum oscillations (QOs) necessarily arise from Fermi surfaces in metals. We revisit recently proposed theories for this phenomenon, focusing on a minimal model of an insulator with a hybridization gap between two opposite-parity light and heavy mass bands with an inverted band structure. We show that there are characteristic differences between the QO frequencies in the magnetization and the low-energy density of states (LE-DOS) of these insulators, in marked contrast to metals where all observables exhibit oscillations at the same frequency. The magnetization oscillations arising from occupied Landau levels occur at the same frequency that would exist in the unhybridized case. The LE-DOS oscillations in a disorder-free system are dominated by gap-edge states and exhibit a beat pattern between two distinct frequencies at low temperature. Disorder-induced in-gap states lead to an additional contribution to the DOS at the unhybridized frequency. The temperature dependence of the amplitude and phase of the magnetization and DOS oscillations are also qualitatively different and show marked deviations from the Lifshitz–Kosevich form well known in metals. We also compute transport to ensure that we are probing a regime with insulating upturns in the direct current (DC) resistivity. 
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  4. We present exact results that give insight into how interactions lead to transport and superconductivity in a flat band where the electrons have no kinetic energy. We obtain bounds for the optical spectral weight for flat-band superconductors that lead to upper bounds for the superfluid stiffness and the two-dimensional (2D)Tc. We focus on on-site attraction|U|on the Lieb lattice with trivial flat bands and on the π-flux model with topological flat bands. For trivial flat bands, the low-energy optical spectral weightD̃lowñ|U|Ω/2withñ=minn,2n, where n is the flat-band density and Ω is the Marzari–Vanderbilt spread of the Wannier functions (WFs). We also obtain a lower bound involving the quantum metric. For topological flat bands, with an obstruction to localized WFs respecting all symmetries, we again obtain an upper bound forD̃lowlinear in|U|. We discuss the insights obtained from our bounds by comparing them with mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo results.

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