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  1. Abstract

    This paper reports the first measurement of the relationship between turbulent velocity and cloud size in the diffuse circumgalactic medium (CGM) in typical galaxy halos at redshiftz≈ 0.4–1. Through spectrally resolved absorption profiles of a suite of ionic transitions paired with careful ionization analyses of individual components, cool clumps of size as small aslcl∼ 1 pc and density lower thannH= 10−3cm−3are identified in galaxy halos. In addition, comparing the line widths between different elements for kinematically matched components provides robust empirical constraints on the thermal temperatureTand the nonthermal motionsbNT, independent of the ionization models. On average,bNTis found to increase withlclfollowingbNTlcl0.3over three decades in spatial scale fromlcl≈ 1 pc tolcl≈ 1 kpc. Attributing the observedbNTto turbulent motions internal to the clumps, the best-fitbNTlclrelation shows that the turbulence is consistent with Kolmogorov at <1 kpc with a roughly constant energy transfer rate per unit mass ofϵ≈ 0.003 cm2s−3and a dissipation timescale of ≲100 Myr. No significant difference is found between massive quiescent and star-forming halos in the sample on scales less than 1 kpc. While the inferredϵis comparable to what is found in Civabsorbers at high redshift, it is considerably smaller than observed in star-forming gas or in extended line-emitting nebulae around distant quasars. A brief discussion of possible sources to drive the observed turbulence in the cool CGM is presented.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We  present the demography of the dynamics and gas mass fraction of 33 extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with metallicities of 0.015–0.195Zand low stellar masses of 104–108Min the local universe. We conduct deep optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for the low-mass EMPGs with the medium-high resolution (R= 7500) grism of the 8 m Subaru FOCAS IFU instrument by the EMPRESS 3D survey, and investigate the Hαemission of the EMPGs. Exploiting the resolution high enough for the low-mass galaxies, we derive gas dynamics with the Hαlines by the fitting of three-dimensional disk models. We obtain an average maximum rotation velocity (vrot) of 15 ± 3 km s−1and an average intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ0) of 27 ± 10 km s−1for 15 spatially resolved EMPGs out of 33 EMPGs, and find that all 15 EMPGs havevrot/σ0< 1 suggesting dispersion-dominated systems. There is a clear decreasing trend ofvrot/σ0with the decreasing stellar mass and metallicity. We derive the gas mass fraction (fgas) for all 33 EMPGs, and find no clear dependence on stellar mass and metallicity. Thesevrot/σ0andfgastrends should be compared with young high-zgalaxies observed by the forthcoming JWST IFS programs to understand the physical origins of the EMPGs in the local universe.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We present the first empirical constraints on the turbulent velocity field of the diffuse circumgalactic medium around four luminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at z ≈ 0.5–1.1. Spatially extended nebulae of ≈50–100 physical kpc in diameter centred on the QSOs are revealed in [O ii] $\lambda \lambda \, 3727,3729$ and/or [O iii] $\lambda \, 5008$ emission lines in integral field spectroscopic observations obtained using Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope. We measure the second- and third-order velocity structure functions (VSFs) over a range of scales, from ≲5 kpc to ≈20–50 kpc, to quantify the turbulent energy transfer between different scales in these nebulae. While no constraints on the energy injection and dissipation scales can be obtained from the current data, we show that robust constraints on the power-law slope of the VSFs can be determined after accounting for the effects of atmospheric seeing, spatial smoothing, and large-scale bulk flows. Out of the four QSO nebulae studied, one exhibits VSFs in spectacular agreement with the Kolmogorov law, expected for isotropic, homogeneous, and incompressible turbulent flows. The other three fields exhibit a shallower decline in the VSFs from large to small scales. However, with a limited dynamic range in the spatial scales in seeing-limited data, no constraints can be obtained for the VSF slopes of these three nebulae. For the QSO nebula consistent with the Kolmogorov law, we determine a turbulence energy cascade rate of ≈0.2 cm2 s−3. We discuss the implication of the observed VSFs in the context of QSO feeding and feedback in the circumgalactic medium.

     
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  4. Abstract

    In previous work, we identified a population of 38 cool and luminous variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and examined 11 in detail in order to classify them as either Thorne–Żytkow objects (TŻOs; red supergiants with a neutron star cores) or super-asymptotic giant branch (sAGB) stars (the most massive stars that will not undergo core collapse). This population includes HV 2112, a peculiar star previously considered in other works to be either a TŻO or high-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Here we continue this investigation, using the kinematic and radio environments and local star formation history of these stars to place constraints on the age of the progenitor systems and the presence of past supernovae. These stars are not associated with regions of recent star formation, and we find no evidence of past supernovae at their locations. Finally, we also assess the presence of heavy elements and lithium in their spectra compared to red supergiants. We find strong absorption in Li and s-process elements compared to RSGs in most of the sample, consistent with sAGB nucleosynthesis, while HV 2112 shows additional strong lines associated with TŻO nucleosynthesis. Coupled with our previous mass estimates, the results are consistent with the stars being massive (∼4–6.5M) or sAGB (∼6.5–12M) stars in the thermally pulsing phase, providing crucial observations of the transition between low- and high-mass stellar populations. HV 2112 is more ambiguous; it could either be a maximally massive sAGB star, or a TŻO if the minimum mass for stability extends down to ≲13M.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    This paper presents a systematic study of the photoionization and thermodynamic properties of the cool circumgalactic medium (CGM) as traced by rest-frame ultraviolet absorption lines around 26 galaxies at redshift z ≲ 1. The study utilizes both high-quality far-ultraviolet and optical spectra of background QSOs and deep galaxy redshift surveys to characterize the gas density, temperature, and pressure of individual absorbing components and to resolve their internal non-thermal motions. The derived gas density spans more than three decades, from $\log (n_{\rm H}/{{\rm cm^{-3}}}) \approx -4$ to −1, while the temperature of the gas is confined in a narrow range of log (T/K) ≈ 4.3 ± 0.3. In addition, a weak anticorrelation between gas density and temperature is observed, consistent with the expectation of the gas being in photoionization equilibrium. Furthermore, decomposing the observed line widths into thermal and non-thermal contributions reveals that more than 30 per cent of the components at z ≲ 1 exhibit line widths driven by non-thermal motions, in comparison to <20 per cent found at z ≈ 2–3. Attributing the observed non-thermal line widths to intra-clump turbulence, we find that massive quenched galaxies on average exhibit higher non-thermal broadening/turbulent energy in their CGM compared to star-forming galaxies at z ≲ 1. Finally, strong absorption features from multiple ions covering a wide range of ionization energy (e.g. from Mg ii to O iv) can be present simultaneously in a single absorption system with kinematically aligned component structure, but the inferred pressure in different phases may differ by a factor of ≈10.

     
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  6. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT This paper presents a detailed analysis of two giant Lyman-alpha (Ly α) arcs detected near galaxies at z = 3.038 and z = 3.754 lensed by the massive cluster MACS 1206−0847 (z = 0.44). The Ly α nebulae revealed in deep MUSE observations exhibit a double-peaked profile with a dominant red peak, indicating expansion/outflowing motions. One of the arcs stretches over 1 arcmin around the cluster Einstein radius, resolving the velocity field of the line-emitting gas on kpc scales around three star-forming galaxies of 0.3–$1.6\, L_*$ at z = 3.038. The second arc spans 15 arcsec in size, roughly centred around two low-mass Ly α emitters of $\approx 0.03\, L_*$ at z = 3.754. All three galaxies in the z = 3.038 group exhibit prominent damped Ly α absorption (DLA) and several metal absorption lines, in addition to nebular emission lines such as $\hbox{He ii}$$\lambda \, 1640$ and C iii]λλ1906, 1908. Extended Ly α emission appears to emerge from star-forming regions with suppressed surface brightness at the centre of each galaxy. Significant spatial variations in the Ly α line profile are observed which, when unaccounted for in the integrated line, leads to biased constraints for the underlying gas kinematics. The observed spatial variations indicate the presence of a steep velocity gradient in a continuous flow of high column density gas from star-forming regions into a low-density halo environment. A detailed inspection of available galaxy spectra shows no evidence of AGN activity in the galaxies, and the observed Ly α signals are primarily explained by resonant scattering. The study presented in this paper shows that spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy provides the most detailed insights yet into the kinematics of galactic superwinds associated with star-forming galaxies. 
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  7. Abstract

    We present kinematics of six local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with low metallicities (0.016–0.098Z) and low stellar masses (104.7–107.6M). Taking deep medium/high-resolution (R∼ 7500) integral-field spectra with 8.2 m Subaru, we resolve the small inner velocity gradients and dispersions of the EMPGs with Hαemission. Carefully masking out substructures originating by inflow and/or outflow, we fit three-dimensional disk models to the observed Hαflux, velocity, and velocity dispersion maps. All the EMPGs show rotational velocities (vrot) of 5–23 km s−1smaller than the velocity dispersions (σ0) of 17–31 km s−1, indicating dispersion-dominated (vrot/σ0= 0.29–0.80 < 1) systems affected by inflow and/or outflow. Except for two EMPGs with large uncertainties, we find that the EMPGs have very large gas-mass fractions offgas≃ 0.9–1.0. Comparing our results with other Hαkinematics studies, we find thatvrot/σ0decreases andfgasincreases with decreasing metallicity, decreasing stellar mass, and increasing specific star formation rate. We also find that simulated high-z(z∼ 7) forming galaxies have gas fractions and dynamics similar to the observed EMPGs. Our EMPG observations and the simulations suggest that primordial galaxies are gas-rich dispersion-dominated systems, which would be identified by the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations atz∼ 7.

     
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. ABSTRACT We present a detailed study of two partial Lyman limit systems (pLLSs) of neutral hydrogen column density $N_\mathrm{H\, I}\approx (1-3)\times 10^{16}\, \mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ discovered at $z$ = 0.5 in the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). Available far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and optical echelle spectra from MIKE on the Magellan Telescopes enable a comprehensive ionization analysis of diffuse circumgalactic gas based on resolved kinematics and abundance ratios of atomic species spanning five different ionization stages. These data provide unambiguous evidence of kinematically aligned multiphase gas that masquerades as a single-phase structure and can only be resolved by simultaneous accounting of the full range of observed ionic species. Both systems are resolved into multiple components with inferred α-element abundance varying from [α/H] ≈−0.8 to near solar and densities spanning over two decades from log nH/cm−3 ≈ −2.2 to <−4.3. Available deep galaxy survey data from the CUBS program taken with VLT/MUSE, Magellan/LDSS3-C and Magellan/IMACS reveal that the $z$ = 0.47 system is located 55 kpc from a star-forming galaxy with prominent Balmer absorption of stellar mass ${{M_{\rm star}}}\approx 2\times 10^{10}\, {{M_{\odot}}}$, while the $z$ = 0.54 system resides in an overdense environment of 11 galaxies within 750 kpc in projected distance, with the most massive being a luminous red galaxy of ${{M_{\rm star}}}\approx 2\times 10^{11}\, {{M_{\odot}}}$ at 375 kpc. The study of these two pLLSs adds to an emerging picture of the complex, multiphase circumgalactic gas that varies in chemical abundances and density on small spatial scales in diverse galaxy environments. The inhomogeneous nature of metal enrichment and density revealed in observations must be taken into account in theoretical models of diffuse halo gas. 
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