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  1. Abstract Recently, nodal line semimetals based on ZrSiS-family have garnered massive research interests contributing numerous experimental and theoretical works. Despite being the most studied nodal-line semimetal, a clear understanding of the transient state relaxation dynamics and the underlying mechanism in ZrSiS is lacking. Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the ultrafast relaxation dynamics in ZrSiS and reveal a unique relaxation in the bulk nodal-line state which is well-captured by a simple model based on optical and acoustic phonon cooling. Our model predicts linear decay processes for both optical and acoustic phonon relaxations with optical cooling dominant at higher temperatures. Our results reveal different decay mechanisms for the bulk and surface states and pave a way to understand the mechanism of conduction in this material. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Kagome materials have become solid grounds to study the interplay among geometry, topology, correlation, and magnetism. Recently, niobium halide semiconductors Nb 3 X 8 ( X  = Cl, Br, I) have been predicted to be two-dimensional magnets and these materials are also interesting for their breathing kagome geometry. However, experimental electronic structure studies of these promising materials are still lacking. Here, we report the spectroscopic evidence of flat and weakly dispersing bands in breathing-kagome semiconductor Nb 3 I 8 around 500 meV binding energy, which is well supported by our first-principles calculations. These bands originate from the breathing kagome lattice of niobium atoms and have niobium d -orbital character. They are found to be sensitive to the polarization of the incident photon beam. Our study provides insight into the electronic structure and flat band topology in an exfoliable kagome semiconductor, thereby providing an important platform to understand the interaction of geometry and electron correlations in two-dimensional materials. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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