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  1. The antitumor effects of a partially purified water extract from Euglena gracilis (EWE) and EWE treated by boiling (bEWE) were evaluated using orthotopic lung cancer syngeneic mouse models with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Daily oral administration of either EWE or bEWE started three weeks prior to the inoculation of LLC cells significantly attenuated tumor growth as compared to the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control, and the attenuation was further enhanced by bEWE. The intestinal microbiota compositions in both extract-treated groups were more diverse than that in the PBS group. Particularly, a decrease in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Akkermansia and Muribaculum were observed in two types of EWE-treated groups. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using bEWE-treated mouse feces attenuated tumor growth to an extent equivalent to bEWE treatment, while tumor growth attenuation by bEWE was abolished by treatment with an antibiotic cocktail. These studies strongly suggest that daily oral administration of partially purified water extracts from Euglena gracilis attenuates lung carcinoma growth via the alteration of the intestinal microbiota. 
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