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  1. In recent years, oxide electronics has emerged as one of the most promising new technologies for a variety of electrical and optoelectronic applications, including next-generation displays, solar cells, batteries, and photodetectors. Oxide electronics have a lot of potential because of their high carrier mobilities and ability to be manufactured at low temperatures. However, the preponderance of oxide semiconductors is n-type oxides, limiting present applications to unipolar devices and stifling the development of oxide-based bipolar devices like p-n diodes and complementary metal-oxide–semiconductors. We have contributed to oxide electronics, particularly on transition metal oxide semiconductors of which the cations include In, Zn, Sn and Ga. We have integrated these oxide semiconductors into thin film transistors (TFTs) as active channel layer in light of the unique combination of electronic and optical properties such as high carrier mobility (5-10 cm2/Vs), optical transparency in the visible regime (>~90%) and mild thermal budget processing (200-400°C). In this study, we achieved four different results. The first result is that unlike several previous reports on oxide p-n junctions fabricated exploiting a thin film epitaxial growth technique (known as molecular beam epitaxy, MBE) or a high-powered laser beam process (known as pulsed laser deposition, PLD) that requires ultra-high vacuummore »conditions, a large amount of power, and is limited for large-area processing, we demonstrate oxide-based heterojunction p-n diodes that consist of sputter-synthesized p-SnOx and n-IGZO of which the manufacturing routes are in-line with current manufacturing requirements. The second result is that the synthesized p-SnOx films are devoid of metallic Sn phases (i.e., Sn0 state) with carrier density tuneability and high carrier mobility (> 2 cm2/Vs). The third result is that the charge blocking performance of the metallurgical junction is significantly enhanced by the engineering of trap/defect density of n-IGZO, which is identified using photoelectron microscopy and valence band measurements. The last result is that the resulting oxide-based p-n heterojunction exhibits a high rectification ratio greater than 103 at ±3 V (highest among the sputter-processed oxide junctions), a low saturation current of ~2×10-10 A, and a small turn-on voltage of ~0.5 V. The outcomes of the current study are expected to contribute to the development of p-type oxides and their industrial device applications such as p-n diodes of which the manufacturing routes are in-line with the current processing requirements.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 29, 2023
  2. The discovery of oxide electronics is of increasing importance today as one of the most promising new technologies and manufacturing processes for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications such as next-generation displays, batteries, solar cells, memory devices, and photodetectors[1]. The high potential use seen in oxide electronics is due primarily to their high carrier mobilities and their ability to be fabricated at low temperatures[2]. However, since the majority of oxide semiconductors are n-type oxides, current applications are limited to unipolar devices, eventually developing oxide-based bipolar devices such as p-n diodes and complementary metal-oxide semiconductors. We have contributed to a wide range of oxide semiconductors and their electronics and optoelectronic device applications. Particularly, we have demonstrated n-type oxide-based thin film transistors (TFT), integrating In 2 O 3 -based n-type oxide semiconductors from binary cation materials to ternary cation species including InZnO, InGaZnO (IGZO), and InAlZnO. We have suggested channel/metallization contact strategies to achieve stable and high TFT performance[3, 4], identified vacancy-based native defect doping mechanisms[5], suggested interfacial buffer layers to promote charge injection capability[6], and established the role of third cation species on the carrier generation and carrier transport[7]. More recently, we have reported facile manufacturing of p-type SnOx throughmore »reactive magnetron sputtering from a Sn metal target[8]. The fabricated p-SnOx was found to be devoid of metallic phase of Sn from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and demonstrated stable performance in a fully oxide-based p-n heterojunction together with n-InGaZnO. The oxide-based p-n junctions exhibited a high rectification ratio greater than 10 3 at ±3 V, a low saturation current of ~2x10 -10 , and a small turn-on voltage of -0.5 V. In this presentation, we review recent achievements and still remaining issues in transition metal oxide semiconductors and their device applications, in particular, bipolar applications including p-n heterostructures and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as well as single polarity devices such as TFTs and memristors. In addition, the fundamental mechanisms of carrier transport behaviors and doping mechanisms that govern the performance of these oxide-based devices will also be discussed. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 20011028) by KRISS. K.N. was supported by Basic Science Research Program (NRF-2021R11A1A01051246) through the NRF Korea funded by the Ministry of Education. REFERENCES [1] K. Nomura et al. , Nature, vol. 432, no. 7016, pp. 488-492, Nov 25 2004. [2] D. C. Paine et al. , Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 17, pp. 5894-5898, Jul 1 2008. [3] S. Lee et al. , Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109, no. 6, p. 063702, Mar 15 2011, Art. no. 063702. [4] S. Lee et al. , Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 25, p. 252103, 2014. [5] S. Lee et al. , Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 5, p. 052101, Feb 4 2013, Art. no. 052101. [6] M. Liu et al. , ACS Applied Electronic Materials, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 2703-2711, 2021/06/22 2021. [7] A. Reed et al. , Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 10.1039/D0TC02655G vol. 8, no. 39, pp. 13798-13810, 2020. [8] D. H. Lee et al. , ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 13, no. 46, pp. 55676-55686, 2021/11/24 2021.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023