This work combines spectroscopic and photometric data of the polluted white dwarf WD 0141−675, which has a now retracted astrometric super-Jupiter candidate, and investigates the most promising ways to confirm Gaia astrometric planetary candidates and obtain follow-up data. Obtaining precise radial velocity measurements for white dwarfs is challenging due to their intrinsic faint magnitudes, lack of spectral absorption lines, and broad spectral features. However, dedicated radial velocity campaigns are capable of confirming close-in giant exoplanets (a few MJup) around polluted white dwarfs, where additional metal lines aid radial velocity measurements. Infrared emission from these giant exoplanets is shown to be detectable with JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and will provide constraints on the formation of the planet. Using the initial Gaia astrometric solution for WD 0141−675 as a case study, if there were a planet with a 33.65 d period or less with a nearly edge-on orbit, (1) ground-based radial velocity monitoring limits the mass to <15.4 MJup, and (2) space-based infrared photometry shows a lack of infrared excess and in a cloud-free planetary cooling scenario, a substellar companion would have to be <16 MJup and be older than 3.7 Gyr. These results demonstrate how radial velocities and infrared photometry can probe the mass of the objects producing some of the astrometric signals, and rule out parts of the brown dwarf and planet mass parameter space. Therefore, combining astrometric data with spectroscopic and photometric data is crucial to both confirm and characterize astrometric planet candidates around white dwarfs.
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Abstract We started a survey with CHARA/MIRC-X and VLTI/GRAVITY to search for low-mass companions orbiting individual components of intermediate-mass binary systems. With the incredible precision of these instruments, we can detect astrometric “wobbles” from companions down to a few tens of microarcseconds. This allows us to detect any previously unseen triple systems in our list of binaries. We present the orbits of 12 companions around early F- to B-type binaries, 9 of which are new detections and 3 of which are first astrometric detections of known radial velocity (RV) companions. The masses of these newly detected components range from 0.45 to 1.3 M ⊙ . Our orbits constrain these systems to a high astrometric precision, with median residuals to the orbital fit of 20–50 μ as in most cases. For seven of these systems we include newly obtained RV data, which help us to identify the system configuration and to solve for masses of individual components in some cases. Although additional RV measurements are needed to break degeneracy in the mutual inclination, we find that the majority of these inner triples are not well aligned with the wide binary orbit. This hints that higher-mass triples are more misaligned compared to solar and lower-mass triples, though a thorough study of survey biases is needed. We show that the ARMADA survey is extremely successful at uncovering previously unseen companions in binaries. This method will be used in upcoming papers to constrain companion demographics in intermediate-mass binary systems down to the planetary-mass regime.more » « less