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  1. Abstract

    We report the detection of the CO(12–11) line emission toward G09-83808 (or H-ATLAS J090045.4+004125), a strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy at z = 6.02, with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. Combining previously detected [O iii] 88 μm, [N ii] 205 μm, and dust continuum at 0.6 mm and 1.5 mm, we investigate the physical properties of the multi-phase interstellar medium in G09-83808. A source-plane reconstruction reveals that the region of the CO(12–11) emission is compact ($R_\mathrm{{e, CO}}=0.49^{+0.29}_{-0.19}\:\mbox{kpc}$) and roughly coincides with that of the dust continuum. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer modeling of CO spectral-line energy distribution reveals that most of the CO(12–11) emission comes from a warm (kinetic temperature of Tkin = 320 ± 170 K) and dense [log (nH2/cm−3) = 5.4 ± 0.6] gas, indicating that the warm and dense molecular gas is concentrated in the central 0.5 kpc region. The luminosity ratio in G09-83808 is estimated to be LCO(12-11)/LCO(6-5) = 1.1 ± 0.2. The high ratio is consistent with those in local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and 6 < z < 7 quasars, the fact of which implies that G09-83808 would be a good target to explore dust-obscured AGNs in the epoch of reionization. In the reconstructed [O iii] 88 μm and [N ii] 205 μm cubes, we also find that a monotonic velocity gradientmore »is extending over the central starburst region by a factor of 2 and that star-forming sub-components exist. High-resolution observations of bright [C ii] 158 μm line emissions will enable us to characterize the kinematics of a possible rotating disk and the nature of the sub-components.

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  2. Abstract

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback is postulated as a key mechanism for regulating star formation within galaxies. Studying the physical properties of the outflowing gas from AGNs is thus crucial for understanding the coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. Here we report 55 pc resolution ALMA neutral atomic carbon [Ci]3P13P0observations toward the central 1 kpc of the nearby Type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, supplemented by 55 pc resolution CO(J= 1−0) observations. We find that [Ci] emission within the central kiloparsec is strongly enhanced by a factor of >5 compared to the typical [Ci]/CO intensity ratio of ∼0.2 for nearby starburst galaxies (in units of brightness temperature). The most [Ci]-enhanced gas (ratio > 1) exhibits a kiloparsec-scale elongated structure centered at the AGN that matches the known biconical ionized gas outflow entraining molecular gas in the disk. A truncated, decelerating bicone model explains well the kinematics of the elongated structure, indicating that the [Ci] enhancement is predominantly driven by the interaction between the ISM in the disk and the highly inclined ionized gas outflow (which is likely driven by the radio jet). Our results strongly favor the “CO dissociation scenario” rather than the “in situ C formation” one,more »which prefers a perfect bicone geometry. We suggest that the high-[Ci]/CO intensity ratio gas in NGC 1068 directly traces ISM in the disk that is currently dissociated and entrained by the jet and the outflow, i.e., the “negative” effect of the AGN feedback.

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  3. ABSTRACT

    The processes of star formation and feedback, regulating the cycle of matter between gas and stars on the scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs; ∼100 pc), play a major role in governing galaxy evolution. Measuring the time-scales of GMC evolution is important to identify and characterize the specific physical mechanisms that drive this transition. By applying a robust statistical method to high-resolution CO and narrow-band H α imaging from the PHANGS survey, we systematically measure the evolutionary timeline from molecular clouds to exposed young stellar regions on GMC scales, across the discs of an unprecedented sample of 54 star-forming main-sequence galaxies (excluding their unresolved centres). We find that clouds live for about 1−3 GMC turbulence crossing times (5−30 Myr) and are efficiently dispersed by stellar feedback within 1−5 Myr once the star-forming region becomes partially exposed, resulting in integrated star formation efficiencies of 1−8 per cent. These ranges reflect physical galaxy-to-galaxy variation. In order to evaluate whether galactic environment influences GMC evolution, we correlate our measurements with average properties of the GMCs and their local galactic environment. We find several strong correlations that can be physically understood, revealing a quantitative link between galactic-scale environmental properties and the small-scale GMC evolution. Notably, the measured CO-visible cloudmore »lifetimes become shorter with decreasing galaxy mass, mostly due to the increasing presence of CO-dark molecular gas in such environment. Our results represent a first step towards a comprehensive picture of cloud assembly and dispersal, which requires further extension and refinement with tracers of the atomic gas, dust, and deeply embedded stars.

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  4. Abstract We measure the low- J CO line ratios R 21 ≡ CO (2–1)/CO (1–0), R 32 ≡ CO (3–2)/CO (2–1), and R 31 ≡CO (3–2)/CO (1–0) using whole-disk CO maps of nearby galaxies. We draw CO (2–1) from PHANGS-ALMA, HERACLES, and follow-up IRAM surveys; CO (1–0) from COMING and the Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies; and CO (3–2) from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Large APEX Sub-Millimetre Array mapping. All together, this yields 76, 47, and 29 maps of R 21 , R 32 , and R 31 at 20″ ∼ 1.3 kpc resolution, covering 43, 34, and 20 galaxies. Disk galaxies with high stellar mass, log ( M ⋆ / M ⊙ ) = 10.25 – 11 , and star formation rate (SFR) = 1–5 M ⊙ yr −1 , dominate the sample. We find galaxy-integrated mean values and a 16%–84% range of R 21 = 0.65 (0.50–0.83), R 32 = 0.50 (0.23–0.59), and R 31 = 0.31 (0.20–0.42). We identify weak trends relating galaxy-integrated line ratios to properties expected to correlate with excitation, including SFR/ M ⋆ and SFR/ L CO . Within galaxies, we measure centralmore »enhancements with respect to the galaxy-averaged value of ∼ 0.18 − 0.14 + 0.09 dex for R 21 , 0.27 − 0.15 + 0.13 dex for R 31 , and 0.08 − 0.09 + 0.11 dex for R 32 . All three line ratios anticorrelate with galactocentric radius and positively correlate with the local SFR surface density and specific SFR, and we provide approximate fits to these relations. The observed ratios can be reasonably reproduced by models with low temperature, moderate opacity, and moderate densities, in good agreement with expectations for the cold interstellar medium. Because the line ratios are expected to anticorrelate with the CO (1–0)-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO 1 − 0 , these results have general implications for the interpretation of CO emission from galaxies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Abstract

    We present a rich, multiwavelength, multiscale database built around the PHANGS–ALMA CO (2 − 1) survey and ancillary data. We use this database to present the distributions of molecular cloud populations and subgalactic environments in 80 PHANGS galaxies, to characterize the relationship between population-averaged cloud properties and host galaxy properties, and to assess key timescales relevant to molecular cloud evolution and star formation. We show that PHANGS probes a wide range of kpc-scale gas, stellar, and star formation rate (SFR) surface densities, as well as orbital velocities and shear. The population-averaged cloud properties in each aperture correlate strongly with both local environmental properties and host galaxy global properties. Leveraging a variable selection analysis, we find that the kpc-scale surface densities of molecular gas and SFR tend to possess the most predictive power for the population-averaged cloud properties. Once their variations are controlled for, galaxy global properties contain little additional information, which implies that the apparent galaxy-to-galaxy variations in cloud populations are likely mediated by kpc-scale environmental conditions. We further estimate a suite of important timescales from our multiwavelength measurements. The cloud-scale freefall time and turbulence crossing time are ∼5–20 Myr, comparable to previous cloud lifetime estimates. The timescales formore »orbital motion, shearing, and cloud–cloud collisions are longer, ∼100 Myr. The molecular gas depletion time is 1–3 Gyr and shows weak to no correlations with the other timescales in our data. We publish our measurements online, and expect them to have broad utility to future studies of molecular clouds and star formation.

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  6. Abstract The PHANGS program is building the first data set to enable the multiphase, multiscale study of star formation across the nearby spiral galaxy population. This effort is enabled by large survey programs with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), MUSE on the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with which we have obtained CO(2–1) imaging, optical spectroscopic mapping, and high-resolution UV–optical imaging, respectively. Here, we present PHANGS-HST, which has obtained NUV– U – B – V – I imaging of the disks of 38 spiral galaxies at distances of 4–23 Mpc, and parallel V - and I -band imaging of their halos, to provide a census of tens of thousands of compact star clusters and multiscale stellar associations. The combination of HST, ALMA, and VLT/MUSE observations will yield an unprecedented joint catalog of the observed and physical properties of ∼100,000 star clusters, associations, H ii regions, and molecular clouds. With these basic units of star formation, PHANGS will systematically chart the evolutionary cycling between gas and stars across a diversity of galactic environments found in nearby galaxies. We discuss the design of the PHANGS-HST survey and provide an overview of the HST data processing pipeline andmore »first results. We highlight new methods for selecting star cluster candidates, morphological classification of candidates with convolutional neural networks, and identification of stellar associations over a range of physical scales with a watershed algorithm. We describe the cross-observatory imaging, catalogs, and software products to be released. The PHANGS high-level science products will seed a broad range of investigations, in particular, the study of embedded stellar populations and dust with the James Webb Space Telescope, for which a PHANGS Cycle 1 Treasury program to obtain eight-band 2–21 μ m imaging has been approved.« less
  7. ABSTRACT We present improved methods for segmenting CO emission from galaxies into individual molecular clouds, providing an update to the cprops algorithms presented by Rosolowsky & Leroy. The new code enables both homogenization of the noise and spatial resolution among data, which allows for rigorous comparative analysis. The code also models the completeness of the data via false source injection and includes an updated segmentation approach to better deal with blended emission. These improved algorithms are implemented in a publicly available Python package, pycprops. We apply these methods to 10 of the nearest galaxies in the PHANGS-ALMA survey, cataloguing CO emission at a common 90 pc resolution and a matched noise level. We measure the properties of 4986 individual clouds identified in these targets. We investigate the scaling relations among cloud properties and the cloud mass distributions in each galaxy. The physical properties of clouds vary among galaxies, both as a function of galactocentric radius and as a function of dynamical environment. Overall, the clouds in our target galaxies are well-described by approximate energy equipartition, although clouds in stellar bars and galaxy centres show elevated line widths and virial parameters. The mass distribution of clouds in spiral arms has a typical massmore »scale that is 2.5× larger than interarm clouds and spiral arms clouds show slightly lower median virial parameters compared to interarm clouds (1.2 versus 1.4).« less
  8. Abstract

    We present $\sim {0.^{\prime \prime }3}$ (114 pc) resolution maps of [C i] 3P1–3P0 (hereafter [C i] (1–0)) and 12CO (1–0) obtained toward Arp 220 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The overall distribution of the [C i] (1–0) emission is consistent with the CO (1–0). While the [C i] (1–0) and CO (1–0) luminosities of the system follow the empirical linear relation for the unresolved ULIRG sample, we find a sublinear relation between [C i] (1–0) and CO (1–0) using the spatially-resolved data. We measure the [C i] (1–0)$/$CO (1–0) luminosity ratio per pixel in star-forming environments of Arp 220 and investigate its dependence on the CO (3–2)$/$CO (1–0) ratio (RCO). On average, the [C i] (1–0)$/$CO (1–0) luminosity ratio is almost constant up to RCO ≃ 1 and then increases with RCO. According to the radiative transfer analysis, a high C i$/$CO abundance ratio is required in regions with high [C i] (1–0)$/$CO (1–0) luminosity ratios and RCO > 1, suggesting that the C i$/$CO abundance ratio varies at ∼100 pc scale in Arp 220. The [C i] (1–0)$/$CO (1–0) luminosity ratio depends on multiple factors and may not be straightforward to interpret. We also find the high-velocity components traced by [C i] (1–0) in the western nucleus, likely associated with the molecular outflow. The [C i] (1–0)$/$CO (1–0) luminosity ratio in the putative outflow is 0.87 ± 0.28, which is four times higher than themore »average ratio of Arp 220. While there is a possibility that the [C i] (1–0) and CO (1–0) emission traces different components, we suggest that the high line ratios are likely to be because of elevated C i$/$CO abundance ratios based on our radiative transfer analysis. A C i-rich and CO-poor gas phase in outflows could be caused by the irradiation of the cosmic rays, the shock heating, and the intense radiation field.

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