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  1. Abstract

    Surface plasmons, which allow tight confinement of light, suffer from high intrinsic electronic losses. It has been shown that stimulated emission from excited electrons can transfer energy to plasmons and compensate for the high intrinsic losses. To-date, these realizations have relied on introducing an external gain media coupled to the surface plasmon. Here, we propose that plasmons in two-dimensional materials with closely located electron and hole Fermi pockets can be amplified, when an electrical current bias is applied along the displaced electron-hole pockets, without the need for an external gain media. As a prototypical example, we consider WTe2from the family of 1T$${}^{{\prime} }$$-MX2materials, whose electronic structure can be described within a type-II tilted massive Dirac model. We find that the nonlocal plasmonic response experiences prominent gain for experimentally accessible currents on the order of mAμm−1. Furthermore, the group velocity of the plasmon found from the isofrequency curves imply that the amplified plasmons are highly collimated along a direction perpendicular to the Dirac node tilt when the electrical current is applied along it.

     
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