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iii) chelated paramagnetic polymeric nanoparticle formulation as a next-generation T 1 -weighted MRI contrast agentMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used imaging technique in medical diagnostics. To enhance the quality of MR images, contrast agents (CAs) are used, which account for nearly 40% of MRI exams in the clinic globally. The most used CAs are gadolinium-based CAs (GBCAs) but the use of GBCAs has been linked with metal-deposition in vital organs. Gadolinium deposition has been shown to be correlated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a new CA alternative to GBCAs for T 1 -weighted Ce-MRI. Herein, we designed paramagnetic ferric iron( iii ) ion-chelated poly(lactic- co -glycolic)acid nanoparticle formulation and routinely examined their application in Ce-MRI using clinical and ultra-high-field MRI scanners. Nanoparticles were monodispersed and highly stable at physiological pH over time with the hydrodynamic size of 130 ± 12 nm and polydispersity index of 0.231 ± 0.026. The T 1 -contrast efficacy of the nanoparticles was compared with commercial agent gadopentetate dimeglumine, called Magnevist®, in aqueous phantoms in vitro and then validated in vivo by visualizing an angiographic map in a clinical MRI scanner. Relaxivities of the nanoparticles in an aqueous environment were r 1 = 10.59more »
Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2023
The histone demethylase KDM5A erases histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, which is involved in transcription and DNA damage responses (DDRs). While DDR functions of KDM5A have been identified, how KDM5A recognizes DNA lesion sites within chromatin is unknown. Here, we identify two factors that act upstream of KDM5A to promote its association with DNA damage sites. We have identified a noncanonical poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding region unique to KDM5A. Loss of the PAR-binding region or treatment with PAR polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi’s) blocks KDM5A–PAR interactions and DNA repair functions of KDM5A. The histone variant macroH2A1.2 is also specifically required for KDM5A recruitment and function at DNA damage sites, including homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks and repression of transcription at DNA breaks. Overall, this work reveals the importance of PAR binding and macroH2A1.2 in KDM5A recognition of DNA lesion sites that drive transcriptional and repair activities at DNA breaks within chromatin that are essential for maintaining genome integrity.