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  1. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have grown in popularity in recent years due to their superior surface stability on metal nanoparticles and surfaces. This stability is often characterized experimentally by studying the σ-donation and π-backbonding as measured through NHC-selenium adduct NMR and the Huynh Electronic Parameter (HEP), respectively. However, recent work with NHCs on metal clusters suggests that the ligands can adopt a variety of orientations on the surface. Thus, the surface may have a pronounced impact on the σ-donation and π-backbonding observed for these NHCs. In this work, we aim to determine how well these experimental characterizations compare to trends observed via bond decomposition analysis. 
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  2. Abstract

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) development during different phases of the geomagnetic storm of 3–4 November 2021 (SYMHmin = −118 nT) was examined using observations and simulations. The initial phase of the storm coincided with postsunset (about 30 min after sunset) at Fortaleza (FZ) and São Luís (SL) with longitudes of ∼38.45°W and ∼44°W respectively on November 3 while the recovery phase of the storm started at 12:45 UT on November 4. GOLD shows the longest (shortest) extension of EPBs on November 3 (4) compared to days before and after November 3 and 4, including quiet days. This indicates an intensification (weakening) of EPBs on November 3 (4). From ionosondes at FZ and SL, a strong (weak) range spread F (SSF (RSF)) was observed on November 3 (4). The postsunset peak F layer height on November 3 reached 450 km and exceeded the preceding and succeeding days by ∼50–100 km at SL indicating the presence of a Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF) which enhanced EPB development via the favorable postsunset vertical E x B and Rayleigh‐Taylor instability (RTI) mechanisms on November 3. The lower‐than‐quiet time F layer height observed on November 4 during Pre‐reversal enhancement (PRE) indicates the presence of a westward‐oriented Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF) that undermined RTI growth and led to the weakening of EPB development. Simulation results confirm that the storm‐time electric fields modified the evening‐time ionosphere and influenced the magnitude of verticalE x Bdrift required for the development of EPBs.

     
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  3. During the survey phase of the Kepler mission, several thousand stars were observed in short cadence, allowing for the detection of solar-like oscillations in more than 500 main-sequence and subgiant stars. These detections showed the power of asteroseismology in determining fundamental stellar parameters. However, the Kepler Science Office discovered an issue in the calibration that affected half of the store of short-cadence data, leading to a new data release (DR25) with corrections on the light curves. In this work, we re-analyzed the one-month time series of the Kepler survey phase to search for solar-like oscillations that might have been missed when using the previous data release. We studied the seismic parameters of 99 stars, among which there are 46 targets with new reported solar-like oscillations, increasing, by around 8%, the known sample of solar-like stars with an asteroseismic analysis of the short-cadence data from this mission. The majority of these stars have mid- to high-resolution spectroscopy publicly available with the LAMOST and APOGEE surveys, respectively, as well as precise Gaia parallaxes. We computed the masses and radii using seismic scaling relations and we find that this new sample features massive stars (above 1.2  M ⊙ and up to 2  M ⊙ ) and subgiants. We determined the granulation parameters and amplitude of the modes, which agree with the scaling relations derived for dwarfs and subgiants. The stars studied here are slightly fainter than the previously known sample of main-sequence and subgiants with asteroseismic detections. We also studied the surface rotation and magnetic activity levels of those stars. Our sample of 99 stars has similar levels of activity compared to the previously known sample and is in the same range as the Sun between the minimum and maximum of its activity cycle. We find that for seven stars, a possible blend could be the reason for the non-detection with the early data release. Finally, we compared the radii obtained from the scaling relations with the Gaia ones and we find that the Gaia radii are overestimated by 4.4%, on average, compared to the seismic radii, with a scatter of 12.3% and a decreasing trend according to the evolutionary stage. In addition, for homogeneity purposes, we re-analyzed the DR25 of the main-sequence and subgiant stars with solar-like oscillations that were previously detected and, as a result, we provide the global seismic parameters for a total of 525 stars. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Children acquire and develop emotional regulatory skills in the context of parent-child attachment relationships, nonetheless empirical studies have focused mainly on mother and less information is available regarding the role of both parent-child attachment relationships. Furthermore, despite its importance, there is no information regarding preschool years. This study aims to fill this gap by exploring the potential influences of both mother-child and father-child attachments on preschooler’s later emotion regulation observed in the peer group. Fifty-three Portuguese nuclear families (mother, father and focal child) participated in the study; 47% of the children were boys and 53% were girls. Attachment Security was assessed at home using the Attachment Behavior Q-set when children were 3 years of age, and emotion regulation was observed in the preschool classrooms attended by the children at age 5, using the California child Q-sort to derive an Emotion Regulation Q-Scale. Results showed that the combined influence of both parent-child attachment security predicted better emotion regulation results, than did the specific contributions of each parent per se. Findings are consistent with integrative approaches that highlight the value of including both mother- and father-child attachment relationships, as well as their combined effect, when studying emotion regulation. 
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  5. Abstract

    We address the problem of optimally identifying all kilonovae detected via gravitational-wave emission in the upcoming LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA observing run, O4, which is expected to be sensitive to a factor of ∼7 more binary neutron star (BNS) alerts than previously. Electromagnetic follow-up of all but the brightest of these new events will require >1 m telescopes, for which limited time is available. We present an optimized observing strategy for the DECam during O4. We base our study on simulations of gravitational-wave events expected for O4 and wide-prior kilonova simulations. We derive the detectabilities of events for realistic observing conditions. We optimize our strategy for confirming a kilonova while minimizing telescope time. For a wide range of kilonova parameters, corresponding to a fainter kilonova compared to GW170817/AT 2017gfo, we find that, with this optimal strategy, the discovery probability for electromagnetic counterparts with the DECam is ∼80% at the nominal BNS gravitational-wave detection limit for O4 (190 Mpc), which corresponds to an ∼30% improvement compared to the strategy adopted during the previous observing run. For more distant events (∼330 Mpc), we reach an ∼60% probability of detection, a factor of ∼2 increase. For a brighter kilonova model dominated by the blue component that reproduces the observations of GW170817/AT 2017gfo, we find that we can reach ∼90% probability of detection out to 330 Mpc, representing an increase of ∼20%, while also reducing the total telescope time required to follow up events by ∼20%.

     
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  6. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are among the most widely used strategy to protect marine ecosystems and are typically designed to protect specific habitats rather than a single and/or multiple species. To inform the con- servation of species of conservation concern there is the need to assess whether existing and proposed MPA designs provide protection to these species. For this, information on species spatial distribution and exposure to threats is necessary. However, this information if often lacking, particularly for mobile migratory species, such as marine turtles. To highlight the importance of this information when designing MPAs and for assessments of their effectiveness, we identified high use areas of post-nesting hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazil as a case study and assessed the effectiveness of Brazilian MPAs to protect important habitat for this group based on exposure to threats. Most (88%) of high use areas were found to be exposed to threats (78% to artisanal fishery and 76.7% to marine traffic), where 88.1% were not protected by MPAs, for which 86% are exposed to threats. This mismatch is driven by a lack of explicit conservation goals and targets for turtles in MPA management plans, limited spatial information on species' distribution and threats, and a mismatch in the scale of conservation initiatives. To inform future assessments and design of MPAs for species of conservation concern we suggest that managers: clearly state and make their goals and targets tangible, consider ecological scales instead of political boundaries, and use adaptative management as new information become available. 
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  7. ABSTRACT

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the Type Icn supernova (SN Icn) 2022ann, the fifth member of its newly identified class of SNe. Its early optical spectra are dominated by narrow carbon and oxygen P-Cygni features with absorption velocities of ∼800 km s−1; slower than other SNe Icn and indicative of interaction with a dense, H/He-poor circumstellar medium (CSM) that is outflowing slower than typical Wolf–Rayet wind velocities of >1000 km s−1. We identify helium in NIR spectra 2 weeks after maximum and in optical spectra at 3 weeks, demonstrating that the CSM is not fully devoid of helium. Unlike other SNe Icn, the spectra of SN 2022ann never develop broad features from SN ejecta, including in the nebular phase. Compared to other SNe Icn, SN 2022ann has a low luminosity (o-band absolute magnitude of ∼−17.7), and evolves slowly. The bolometric light curve is well-modelled by 4.8 M⊙ of SN ejecta interacting with 1.3 M⊙ of CSM. We place an upper limit of 0.04 M⊙ of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion. The host galaxy is a dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass of 107.34 M⊙ (implied metallicity of log(Z/Z⊙) ≈ 0.10) and integrated star-formation rate of log (SFR) = −2.20 M⊙ yr−1; both lower than 97 per cent of galaxies observed to produce core-collapse supernovae, although consistent with star-forming galaxies on the galaxy Main Sequence. The low CSM velocity, nickel and ejecta masses, and likely low-metallicity environment disfavour a single Wolf–Rayet progenitor star. Instead, a binary companion is likely required to adequately strip the progenitor and produce a low-velocity outflow.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT

    The Southern Photometric Local Universe Survey (S-PLUS) is an ongoing survey of ∼9300 deg2 in the southern sky in a 12-band photometric system. This paper presents the second data release (DR2) of S-PLUS, consisting of 514 tiles covering an area of 950 deg2. The data has been fully calibrated using a new photometric calibration technique suitable for the new generation of wide-field multifilter surveys. This technique consists of a χ2 minimization to fit synthetic stellar templates to already calibrated data from other surveys, eliminating the need for standard stars and reducing the survey duration by ∼15 per cent. We compare the template-predicted and S-PLUS instrumental magnitudes to derive the photometric zero-points (ZPs). We show that these ZPs can be further refined by fitting the stellar templates to the 12 S-PLUS magnitudes, which better constrain the models by adding the narrow-band information. We use the STRIPE82 region to estimate ZP errors, which are ≲ 10 mmags for filters J0410, J0430, g, J0515, r, J0660, i, J0861 and z; ≲ 15 mmags for filter J0378; and ≲ 25 mmags for filters u and J0395. We describe the complete data flow of the S-PLUS/DR2 from observations to the final catalogues and present a brief characterization of the data. We show that, for a minimum signal-to-noise threshold of 5, the photometric depths of the DR2 range from 19.1 to 20.5 mag (measured in Petrosian apertures), depending on the filter. The S-PLUS DR2 can be accessed from the website: https://splus.cloud.

     
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