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  1. Abstract

    Solitons are nonlinear solitary waves which maintain their shape over time and through collisions, occurring in a variety of nonlinear media from plasmas to optics. We present an experimental and theoretical study of hydrodynamic phenomena in a two-component atomic Bose-Einstein condensate where a soliton array emerges from the imprinting of a periodic spin pattern by a microwave pulse-based winding technique. We observe the ensuing dynamics which include shape deformations, the emergence of dark-antidark solitons, apparent spatial frequency tripling, and decay and revival of contrast related to soliton collisions. For the densest arrays, we obtain soliton complexes where solitons undergo continued collisions for long evolution times providing an avenue towards the investigation of soliton gases in atomic condensates.

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  2. We study the impact of induced correlations and quasiparticle properties by immersing two distinguishable impurities in a harmonically trapped bosonic medium. It is found that when the impurities couple both either repulsively or attractively to their host, the latter mediates a two-body correlated behavior between them. In the reverse case, namely the impurities interact oppositely with the host, they feature anti-bunching. Monitoring the impurities relative distance and constructing an effective two-body model to be compared with the full many-body calculations, we are able to associate the induced (anti-) correlated behavior of the impurities with the presence of attractive (repulsive) induced interactions. Furthermore, we capture the formation of a bipolaron and a trimer state in the strongly attractive regime. The trimer refers to the correlated behavior of two impurities and a representative atom of the bosonic medium and it is characterized by an ellipsoidal shape of the three-body correlation function. Our results open the way for controlling polaron induced correlations and creating relevant bound states.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Abstract We unravel the correlated quantum quench dynamics of a single impurity immersed in a bosonic environment confined in an one-dimensional double-well potential. A particular emphasis is placed on the structure of the time-evolved many-body (MB) wave function by relying on a Schmidt decomposition whose coefficients directly quantify the number of configurations that are macroscopically populated. For a non-interacting bosonic bath and weak postquench impurity-bath interactions, we observe the dynamical formation of a two-fold fragmented MB state which is related to intra-band excitation processes of the impurity and manifests as a two-body phase separation (clustering) between the two species for repulsive (attractive) interactions. Increasing the postquench impurity-bath coupling strength leads to the destruction of the two-fold fragmentation since the impurity undergoes additional inter-band excitation dynamics. By contrast, a weakly interacting bath suppresses excitations of the bath particles and consequently the system attains a weakly fragmented MB state. Our results explicate the interplay of intra- and inter-band impurity excitations for the dynamical generation of fragmented MB states in multi-well traps and for designing specific entangled impurity states. 
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  4. Abstract We investigate the polaronic properties of a single impurity immersed in a weakly interacting bosonic environment confined within a one-dimensional double-well potential using an exact diagonalization approach. We find that an increase of the impurity–bath coupling results in a vanishing residue, signifying the occurrence of the polaron orthogonality catastrophe. Asymptotic configurations of the systems’ ground state wave function in the strongly interacting regime are obtained by means of a Schmidt decomposition, which in turn accounts for the observed orthogonality catastrophe of the polaron. We exemplify that depending on the repulsion of the Bose gas, three distinct residue behaviors appear with respect to the impurity–bath coupling. These residue regimes are characterized by two critical values of the bosonic repulsion and originate from the interplay between the intra- and the interband excitations of the impurity. Moreover, they can be clearly distinguished in the corresponding species reduced density matrices with the latter revealing a phase separation on either the one- or the two-body level. The impact of the interspecies mass-imbalance on the impurity’s excitation processes is appreciated yielding an interaction shift of the residue regions. Our results explicate the interplay of intra- and interband excitation processes for the polaron generation in multiwell traps and for designing specific polaron entangled states motivating their exposure in current experiments. 
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  5. Recent studies have demonstrated that higher than two-body bath-impurity correlations are not important for quantitatively describing the ground state of the Bose polaron. Motivated by the above, we employ the so-called Gross Ansatz (GA) approach to unravel the stationary and dynamical properties of the homogeneous one-dimensional Bose-polaron for different impurity momenta and bath-impurity couplings. We explicate that the character of the equilibrium state crossovers from the quasi-particle Bose polaron regime to the collective-excitation stationary dark-bright soliton for varying impurity momentum and interactions. Following an interspecies interaction quench the temporal orthogonality catastrophe is identified, provided that bath-impurity interactions are sufficiently stronger than the intraspecies bath ones, thus generalizing the results of the confined case. This catastrophe originates from the formation of dispersive shock wave structures associated with the zero-range character of the bath-impurity potential. For initially moving impurities, a momentum transfer process from the impurity to the dispersive shock waves via the exerted drag force is demonstrated, resulting in a final polaronic state with reduced velocity. Our results clearly demonstrate the crucial role of non-linear excitations for determining the behavior of the one-dimensional Bose polaron. 
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