skip to main content

Title: Pattern Formation in One-Dimensional Polaron Systems and Temporal Orthogonality Catastrophe
Recent studies have demonstrated that higher than two-body bath-impurity correlations are not important for quantitatively describing the ground state of the Bose polaron. Motivated by the above, we employ the so-called Gross Ansatz (GA) approach to unravel the stationary and dynamical properties of the homogeneous one-dimensional Bose-polaron for different impurity momenta and bath-impurity couplings. We explicate that the character of the equilibrium state crossovers from the quasi-particle Bose polaron regime to the collective-excitation stationary dark-bright soliton for varying impurity momentum and interactions. Following an interspecies interaction quench the temporal orthogonality catastrophe is identified, provided that bath-impurity interactions are sufficiently stronger than the intraspecies bath ones, thus generalizing the results of the confined case. This catastrophe originates from the formation of dispersive shock wave structures associated with the zero-range character of the bath-impurity potential. For initially moving impurities, a momentum transfer process from the impurity to the dispersive shock waves via the exerted drag force is demonstrated, resulting in a final polaronic state with reduced velocity. Our results clearly demonstrate the crucial role of non-linear excitations for determining the behavior of the one-dimensional Bose polaron.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We investigate the polaronic properties of a single impurity immersed in a weakly interacting bosonic environment confined within a one-dimensional double-well potential using an exact diagonalization approach. We find that an increase of the impurity–bath coupling results in a vanishing residue, signifying the occurrence of the polaron orthogonality catastrophe. Asymptotic configurations of the systems’ ground state wave function in the strongly interacting regime are obtained by means of a Schmidt decomposition, which in turn accounts for the observed orthogonality catastrophe of the polaron. We exemplify that depending on the repulsion of the Bose gas, three distinct residue behaviors appear with respect to the impurity–bath coupling. These residue regimes are characterized by two critical values of the bosonic repulsion and originate from the interplay between the intra- and the interband excitations of the impurity. Moreover, they can be clearly distinguished in the corresponding species reduced density matrices with the latter revealing a phase separation on either the one- or the two-body level. The impact of the interspecies mass-imbalance on the impurity’s excitation processes is appreciated yielding an interaction shift of the residue regions. Our results explicate the interplay of intra- and interband excitation processes for the polaron generation in multiwell traps and for designing specific polaron entangled states motivating their exposure in current experiments. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We investigate the formation of magnetic Bose polaron, an impurity atom dressed by spin-wave excitations, in a one-dimensional spinor Bose gas. Within an effective potential model, the impurity is strongly confined by the host excitations which can even overcome the impurity-medium repulsion leading to a self-localized quasi-particle state. The phase diagram of the attractive and self-bound repulsive magnetic polaron, repulsive non-magnetic (Fröhlich-type) polaron and impurity-medium phase-separation regimes is explored with respect to the Rabi-coupling between the spin components, spin–spin interactions and impurity-medium coupling. The residue of such magnetic polarons decreases substantially in both strong attractive and repulsive branches with strong impurity-spin interactions, illustrating significant dressing of the impurity. The impurity can be used to probe and maneuver the spin polarization of the magnetic medium while suppressing ferromagnetic spin–spin correlations. It is shown that mean-field theory fails as the spinor gas approaches immiscibility since the generated spin-wave excitations are prominent. Our findings illustrate that impurities can be utilized to generate controllable spin–spin correlations and magnetic polaron states which can be realized with current cold atom setups. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract We unravel the correlated quantum quench dynamics of a single impurity immersed in a bosonic environment confined in an one-dimensional double-well potential. A particular emphasis is placed on the structure of the time-evolved many-body (MB) wave function by relying on a Schmidt decomposition whose coefficients directly quantify the number of configurations that are macroscopically populated. For a non-interacting bosonic bath and weak postquench impurity-bath interactions, we observe the dynamical formation of a two-fold fragmented MB state which is related to intra-band excitation processes of the impurity and manifests as a two-body phase separation (clustering) between the two species for repulsive (attractive) interactions. Increasing the postquench impurity-bath coupling strength leads to the destruction of the two-fold fragmentation since the impurity undergoes additional inter-band excitation dynamics. By contrast, a weakly interacting bath suppresses excitations of the bath particles and consequently the system attains a weakly fragmented MB state. Our results explicate the interplay of intra- and inter-band impurity excitations for the dynamical generation of fragmented MB states in multi-well traps and for designing specific entangled impurity states. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract We investigate the ground-state properties of weakly repulsive one-dimensional bosons in the presence of an attractive zero-range impurity potential. First, we derive mean-field solutions to the problem on a finite ring for the two asymptotic cases: (i) all bosons are bound to the impurity and (ii) all bosons are in a scattering state. Moreover, we derive the critical line that separates these regimes in the parameter space. In the thermodynamic limit, this critical line determines the maximum number of bosons that can be bound by the impurity potential, forming an artificial atom. Second, we validate the mean-field results using the flow equation approach and the multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for atomic mixtures. While beyond-mean-field effects destroy long-range order in the Bose gas, the critical boson number is unaffected. Our findings are important for understanding such artificial atoms in low-density Bose gases with static and mobile impurities. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) of the defocusing radial nonlinear Schrödinger (rNLS) equation in two spatial dimensions are studied. This equation arises naturally in Bose‐Einstein condensates, water waves, and nonlinear optics. A unified nonlinear WKB approach, equally applicable to integrable or nonintegrable partial differential equations, is used to find the rNLS Whitham modulation equation system in both physical and hydrodynamic type variables. The description of DSWs obtained via Whitham theory is compared with direct rNLS numerics; the results demonstrate very good quantitative agreement. On the other hand, as expected, comparison with the corresponding DSW solutions of the one‐dimensional NLS equation exhibits significant qualitative and quantitative differences.

    more » « less