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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Friction surfacing is a new variation of friction stir processing for surface property modification of metallic substrates. There is an increasing body of literature about friction surfacing by deposition of metal from a consumable tool to a solid substrate. Friction surfacing has many potential applications in joining, coating for corrosion resistance, and repair of degraded components. This article presents a review of the basic principles and latest research organized by processing techniques and variations, thermomechanical transfer and deposition of material, and finally metallurgical, mechanical, and chemical properties of the resulting deposition. Different friction surfacing processes are reviewed of novel tool–substrate configurations for material deposition for noncoating purposes like keyhole filling and joining dissimilar materials. Possible future topics of study for this area are discussed, which include deeper understanding of material transfer through metallurgy, FEM, and scale up of the technique for practical application.
  3. The friction surfacing technique is an advanced method for creating coatings of various materials onto the surface of a similar or dissimilar material substrate. In this method, there is no external source of heat energy, and all the heat energy required in this method is generated by friction. In this paper, a novel method of friction surfacing from the side of the consumable tool is introduced. The most significant difference in this technique is that material transfer will occur from the radial surface of the consumable tool as opposed to the end of the tool as in conventional friction surfacing. In lateral friction surfacing, the side of the rotating consumable tool is pressed against the substrate surface, which generates frictional heating and shear forces at the interface between tool and substrate. A layer of tool material is transferred from the consumable rod to the substrate surface as the tool moves across. In this study, 6063 aluminum alloy and AISI 1018 carbon steel are used as the materials of consumable tool and substrate, respectively. The impact of process factors, surface roughness values, tool mass loss, and deposition thickness are discussed in detail. The experimental results of this study reveal that lateralmore »friction surfacing produces a very smooth ultra-thin deposition with full coverage, with coating layers with roughness values in the order of 1 µm. Additionally, there is no flash formed in this technique which reduces material consumption. Moreover, temperatures at the interface between the consumable tool and workpiece were measured to be lower than for that in friction surfacing from the end of the tool, which is beneficial for the metallurgical characteristics of the deposited material.« less