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  1. Abstract Jets can facilitate the mass accretion onto the protostars in star formation. They are believed to be launched from accretion disks around the protostars by magnetocentrifugal force, as supported by the detections of rotation and magnetic fields in some of them. Here we report a radial flow of the textbook-case protostellar jet HH 212 at the base to further support this jet-launching scenario. This radial flow validates a central prediction of the magnetocentrifugal theory of jet formation and collimation, namely, the jet is the densest part of a wide-angle wind that flows radially outward at distances far from themore »(small, sub-au) launching region. Additional evidence for the radially flowing wide-angle component comes from its ability to reproduce the structure and kinematics of the shells detected around the HH 212 jet. This component, which can transport material from the inner to outer disk, could account for the chondrules and Ca–Al-rich inclusions detected in the solar system at large distances.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Misalignment between rotation and magnetic fields has been suggested to be one type of physical mechanism that can ease the effects of magnetic braking during the collapse of cloud cores leading to the formation of protostellar disks. However, its essential factors are poorly understood. Therefore, we perform a more detailed analysis of the physics involved. We analyze existing simulation data to measure the system torques, mass accretion rates, and Toomre Q parameters. We also examine the presence of shocks in the system. While advective torques are generally the strongest, we find that magnetic and gravitational torques can play substantialmore »roles in how angular momentum is transferred during the disk formation process. Magnetic torques can shape the accretion flows, creating two-armed magnetized inflow spirals aligned with the magnetic field. We find evidence of an accretion shock that is aligned according to the spiral structure of the system. Inclusion of ambipolar diffusion as explored in this work has shown a slight influence in the small-scale structures but not in the main morphology. We discuss potential candidate systems where some of these phenomena could be present.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects have been shown recently as a robust mechanism of averting the magnetic braking ‘catastrophe’ and promoting protostellar disc formation. However, the magnetic diffusivities that determine the efficiency of non-ideal MHD effects are highly sensitive to microphysics. We carry out non-ideal MHD simulations to explore the role of microphysics on disc formation and the interplay between ambipolar diffusion (AD) and Hall effect during the protostellar collapse. We find that removing the smallest grain population (≲10 nm) from the standard MRN size distribution is sufficient for enabling disc formation. Further varying the grain sizes can result in eithermore »a Hall-dominated or an AD-dominated collapse; both form discs of tens of au in size regardless of the magnetic field polarity. The direction of disc rotation is bimodal in the Hall-dominated collapse but unimodal in the AD-dominated collapse. We also find that AD and Hall effect can operate either with or against each other in both radial and azimuthal directions, yet the combined effect of AD and Hall is to move the magnetic field radially outward relative to the infalling envelope matter. In addition, microphysics and magnetic field polarity can leave profound imprints both on observables (e.g. outflow morphology, disc to stellar mass ratio) and on the magnetic field characteristics of protoplanetary discs. Including Hall effect relaxes the requirements on microphysics for disc formation, so that prestellar cores with cosmic ray ionization rate of ≲2–3 × 10−16 s−1 can still form small discs of ≲10 au radius. We conclude that disc formation should be relatively common for typical prestellar core conditions, and that microphysics in the protostellar envelope is essential to not only disc formation, but also protoplanetary disc evolution.« less
  4. ABSTRACT The Hall effect is recently shown to be efficient in magnetized dense molecular cores and could lead to a bimodal formation of rotationally supported discs (RSDs) in the first core phase. However, how such Hall dominated systems evolve in the protostellar accretion phase remains unclear. We carry out 2D axisymmetric simulations including Hall effect and ohmic dissipation, with realistic magnetic diffusivities computed from our equilibrium chemical network. We find that Hall effect only becomes efficient when the large population of very small grains (VSGs: ≲100 Å) is removed from the standard Mathis–Rumpl–Nordsieck size distribution. With such an enhanced Hall effect,more »however, the bimodality of disc formation does not continue into the main accretion phase. The outer part of the initial ∼40 au disc formed in the anti-aligned configuration ($\boldsymbol {\Omega \cdot B}\lt 0$) flattens into a thin rotationally supported Hall current sheet as Hall effect moves the poloidal magnetic field radially inward relative to matter, leaving only the inner ≲10–20 au RSD. In the aligned configuration ($\boldsymbol {\Omega \cdot B}\gt 0$), disc formation is suppressed initially but a counter-rotating disc forms subsequently due to efficient azimuthal Hall drift. The counter-rotating disc first grows to ∼30 au as Hall effect moves the magnetic field radially outward, but only the inner ≲10 au RSD is long lived like in the anti-aligned case. Besides removing VSGs, cosmic ray ionization rate should be below a few 10−16 s−1 for Hall effect to be efficient in disc formation. We conclude that Hall effect produces small ≲10–20 au discs regardless of the polarity of the magnetic field, and that radially outward diffusion of magnetic fields remains crucial for disc formation and growth.« less