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  1. Abstract

    Pathogenic dsDNA prompts AIM2 assembly leading to the formation of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex that triggers the inflammatory response. The recognition of foreign dsDNA involves AIM2 self-assembly concomitant with dsDNA binding. However, we lack mechanistic and kinetic information on the formation and propagation of the assembly, which can shed light on innate immunity’s time response and specificity. Combining optical traps and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we determine here the association and dissociation rates of the AIM2-DNA complex at the single molecule level. We identify distinct mechanisms for oligomer growth via the binding of incoming AIM2 molecules to adjacent dsDNA or direct interaction with bound AIM2 assemblies, resembling primary and secondary nucleation. Through these mechanisms, the size of AIM2 oligomers can increase fourfold in seconds. Finally, our data indicate that single AIM2 molecules do not diffuse/scan along the DNA, suggesting that oligomerization depends on stochastic encounters with DNA and/or DNA-bound AIM2.

     
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  2. null (Ed.)
    The title morpholinochlorin, C 46 H 16 F 20 N 4 O 3 , was crystallized from hexane/methylene chloride as its 0.44 methylene chloride solvate, C 46 H 16 F 20 N 4 O 3 ·0.44CH 2 Cl 2 . The morpholinochlorin was synthesized by stepwise oxygen insertion into a porphyrin using a `breaking and mending strategy': NaIO 4 -induced diol cleavage of the corresponding 2,3-dihydroxychlorin with in situ methanol-induced, acid-catalyzed intramolecular ring closure of the intermediate secochlorins bisaldehyde. Formally, one of the pyrrolic building blocks was thus replaced by a 2,3-dimethoxymorpholine moiety. Like other morpholinochlorins, the macrocycle of the title compound adopts a ruffled conformation, and the modulation of the porphyrinic π-system chromophore induces a red-shift of its optical spectrum compared to its corresponding chlorin analog. Packing in the crystal is governed by interactions involving the fluorine atoms of the pentafluorophenyl substituents, dominated by C—H...F interactions, and augmented by short fluorine...fluorine contacts, C—F...π interactions, and one severely slipped π-stacking interaction between two pentafluorophenyl rings. The solvate methylene chloride molecule is disordered over two independent positions around an inversion center with occupancies of two × 0.241 (5) and two × 0.199 (4), for a total site occupancy of 88%. 
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