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  1. Modeling springback in sheet materials is challenging in aluminum alloys, especially when a complex strain path is applied. This paper presents results from pure bending experiments on AA 6016-T4 sheet material, where various plastic pre-strains were first applied prior to bending. A crystal plasticity based elasto-plastic selfconsistent (EPSC) model that includes the effect of backstress in the hardening law was used to predict final part shape after unloading. The backstress term in the model was calibrated using geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) content, measured experimentally by high resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD). The EPSC model predicted springforward angles for unstrained 1 mm AA 6016-T4 sheet with an error of 0.4% (0.3◦) in the worst case, while the J2 plasticity isotropic model overpredicted springforward angles by as much as 2.4% (2◦). For cases where uniaxial, plane-strain, and biaxial pre-strains were first imparted to the sheets before bending, the EPSC model with backstress accurately predicted the transition from springforward to springback, while the EPSC model without backstress did not. Backstress influence on model accuracy, which increased with greater pre-strain levels, appears to be correlated to the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) density computed by the model at the end of each pre-strain step. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The flow‐induced dissolution of porous rocks governs many important subsurface processes and applications. Solute mixing, which determines pore‐scale concentration fields, is a key process that affects dissolution. Despite its importance, the effects of pore‐scale mixing on large‐scale dissolution patterns have not been investigated. Here, we use a pore network model to elucidate the mixing effects on macroscopic dissolution patterns and solute transport. We consider two mixing rules at pore intersections that represent two end members in terms of the mixing intensity. We observe that the mixing effect on dissolution is the strongest at moderate Damköhler number, when the reactive and advective time scales are comparable. This is the regime where wormholes spontaneously appear. Incomplete mixing is shown to enhance flow focusing at the tips of the dissolution channels, which results in thinner wormholes and shorter breakthrough times. These effects on passive solute transport are evident independent of initial network heterogeneity.

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    Continuous bending under tension (CBT) is known to achieve elongation-to-failure well above that achieved under a conventional uniaxial simple tension (ST) strain path. However, the detailed mechanism for supplying this increased ductility has not been fully understood. It is clear that the necking that occurs in a typical ST specimen is avoided by constantly moving the region of plastic deformation during the CBT process. The volume of material in which the flow stress is greatest is limited to a moving line where the rollers contact the sheet and superimpose bending stress on the applied tensile load. Hence the condition of a large volume of material experiencing stress greater than the material flow stress, leading to strain localization during ST, is avoided. However, the magnitude of the contribution of this phenomenon to the overall increase in elongation is unclear. In the current set of experiments, an elongation to fracture (ETF) of 4.56x and 3.7x higher than ST was achieved by fine-tuning CBT forming parameters for Q&P 1180 and TBF 1180, respectively. A comparison of maximum local strains near the final point of fracture in ST and CBT sheets via digital image correlation revealed that avoidance of localization of plastic strain during CBT accounts for less than half of the increased elongation in the CBT specimens for two steels containing different amounts of retained austenite (RA). Geometrically necessary dislocation evolution is monitored using high-resolution EBSD (HREBSD) for both strain paths, indicating a lower hardening rate in the CBT samples in the bulk of the sheet, potentially relating to the cyclical nature of the stress in the outer layers of the sheet. Interestingly, the GND evolution in the center of the sheet, which does not experience the same amplitude of cyclic stress, follows the ST behavior more closely than the sheet edges. This appears to contribute to a precipitous drop in residual ductility for the specimens that are pulled in ST after partial CBT processing. The rate of transformation of RA is also tracked in the steels, with a significantly lower rate of transformation during CBT, compared to ST. This suggests that a slower transformation rate achieved under CBT also contributed to higher strain-to-failure levels. 
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