skip to main content

Title: Micromechanical origins of remarkable elongation-to-fracture in AHSS TRIP steels via continuous bending under tension
Continuous bending under tension (CBT) is known to achieve elongation-to-failure well above that achieved under a conventional uniaxial simple tension (ST) strain path. However, the detailed mechanism for supplying this increased ductility has not been fully understood. It is clear that the necking that occurs in a typical ST specimen is avoided by constantly moving the region of plastic deformation during the CBT process. The volume of material in which the flow stress is greatest is limited to a moving line where the rollers contact the sheet and superimpose bending stress on the applied tensile load. Hence the condition of a large volume of material experiencing stress greater than the material flow stress, leading to strain localization during ST, is avoided. However, the magnitude of the contribution of this phenomenon to the overall increase in elongation is unclear. In the current set of experiments, an elongation to fracture (ETF) of 4.56x and 3.7x higher than ST was achieved by fine-tuning CBT forming parameters for Q&P 1180 and TBF 1180, respectively. A comparison of maximum local strains near the final point of fracture in ST and CBT sheets via digital image correlation revealed that avoidance of localization of plastic strain during CBT accounts more » for less than half of the increased elongation in the CBT specimens for two steels containing different amounts of retained austenite (RA). Geometrically necessary dislocation evolution is monitored using high-resolution EBSD (HREBSD) for both strain paths, indicating a lower hardening rate in the CBT samples in the bulk of the sheet, potentially relating to the cyclical nature of the stress in the outer layers of the sheet. Interestingly, the GND evolution in the center of the sheet, which does not experience the same amplitude of cyclic stress, follows the ST behavior more closely than the sheet edges. This appears to contribute to a precipitous drop in residual ductility for the specimens that are pulled in ST after partial CBT processing. The rate of transformation of RA is also tracked in the steels, with a significantly lower rate of transformation during CBT, compared to ST. This suggests that a slower transformation rate achieved under CBT also contributed to higher strain-to-failure levels. « less
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Materials science engineering
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing of third-generation advanced high strength steels generates multiphase microstructures containing metastable retained austenite. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite improves strength and ductility by increasing instantaneous strain hardening rates. This paper explores the influence of martensitic transformation and strain hardening on tensile performance. Tensile tests were performed on steels with nominally similar compositions and microstructures (11.3 to 12.6 vol. pct retained austenite and 16.7 to 23.4 vol. pct ferrite) at 980 and 1180 MPa ultimate tensile strength levels. For each steel, tensile performance was generally consistent along different orientations in the sheet relative to the rolling direction, but a greater amount of austenite transformation occurred during uniform elongation along the rolling direction. Neither the amount of retained austenite prior to straining nor the total amount of retained austenite transformed during straining could be directly correlated to tensile performance. It is proposed that stability of retained austenite, rather than austenite volume fraction, greatly influences strain hardening rate, and thus controls strength and ductility. If true, this suggests that tailoring austenite stability is critical for optimizing the forming response and crash performance of quenched and partitioned grades.
  2. The characteristics of metal and materials are very important to design any component so that it should not fail in the life of the service. The properties of the materials are also an important consideration while setting the manufacturing parameters which deforms the raw material to give the design shape without providing any defect or fracture. For centuries the commonly used method to characterize the material is the traditional uniaxial tension test. The standard has been created for this test by American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) – E8. This specimen is traditionally been used to test the materials and extract the properties needed for designing and manufacturing. It should be noted that the uniaxial tension test uses one axis to test the material i.e., the material is pulled in one direction to extract the properties. The data acquired from this test found enough for manufacturing operations of simple forming where one axis stretching is dominant. Recently a sudden increase in the usage of automotive vehicles results in sudden increases in fuel consumption which results in an increase in air pollution. To cope up with this challenge federal government is implying the stricter environmental regulation to decrease air pollution. Tomore »save from the environmental regulation penalty vehicle industry is researching innovation which would reduce vehicle weight and decrease fuel consumption. Thus, the innovation related to light-weighting is not only an option anymore but became a mandatory necessity to decrease fuel consumption. To achieve this target, the industry has been looking at fabricating components from high strength to ultra-high strength steels or lightweight materials. This need is driven by the requirement of 54 miles per gallon by 2025. In addition, the complexity in design increased where multiple individual parts are eliminated. This integrated complex part needs the complex manufacturing forming operation as well as the process like warm or hot forming for maximum formability. The complex forming process will induce the multi-axial stress states in the part, which is found difficult to predict using conventional tools like tension test material characterization. In many pieces of literature limiting dome height and bulge tests were suggested analyzing these multi-axial stress states. However, these tests limit the possibilities of applying multi-axial loading and resulting stress patterns due to contact surfaces. Thus, a test machine called biaxial test is devised which would provide the capability to test the specimen in multi-axial stress states with varying load. In this paper, two processes, limiting dome test and biaxial test were experimented to plot the forming limit curve. The forming limit curve serves the tool for the design of die for manufacturing operation. For experiments, the cruciform test specimens were used in both limiting dome test and biaxial test and tested at elevated temperatures. The forming limit curve from both tests was plotted and compared. In addition, the strain path, forming, and formability was investigated and the difference between the tests was provided.« less
  3. The mechanical response and microstructure evolution in a rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy were experimentally characterized using companion thin-walled tubular specimens under free-end monotonic torsion. The tubular specimens were made with their axes along the normal direction of the rolled magnesium plate. The shear stress-shear strain response shows a subtle sigmodal shape that is composed of four distinctive stages of strain hardening. Basal slips and tension twinning are operated throughout the shear deformation. Both tension twinning and compressing twinning are favored. Growth and interaction of tension twins with multiple variants lead to formation of twin-twin boundaries (TTBs). The collective hardening effects by twin boundary (TB) and TTB result in a unique rise of the strain hardening rate in Stage II and III. In addition to primary twins, tension-compression double twins and tension-compression-tension tertiary twins with detectable sizes are observed in the tension-twin favorable grains whereas compression-tension double twins are detected in the tension-twin unfavorable grains; all of which become more observable with the increasing shear strain. During Stage IV deformation where TTB formation exhausts, non-basal prismatic slips become more significant and are responsible for the progressive decrease in strain hardening rate in this stage. Swift effect, which is commonly observed inmore »textured materials, is evidenced under free-end torsion. The origin of Swift effect is confirmed to be dislocation slips at a shear strain less than 5% but is predominantly due to tension twinning at a larger plastic strain.« less
  4. Stress-strain responses and twinning characteristics are studied for a rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy under three different stress states: tension along the normal direction (NDT), compression along the rolled direction (RDC), and torsion about the normal direction (NDTOR) using companion specimens interrupted at incremental strain levels. Tension twinning is extensively induced in twinning-favorable NDT and RDC. All the six variants of tension twin are activated under NDT, whereas a maximum of four variants is activated under RDC. Under NDTOR, both tension twins and compression twins are activated at relatively large strains and twinning occurs in a small fraction of favored grains rather than in the majority of grains. Secondary and tertiary twins are observed in the favorably-orientated grains at high strain levels. Deformation under each stress state shows three stages of strain hardening rate: fast decrease (Stage I), sequential increase (Stage II), and progressive decrease (Stage III). The increase in the hardening rate, which is more significant under NDT and RDC as compared to NDTOR, is attributed to the hardening effect of twin boundaries and twinning texture-induced slip activities. The hardening effect of twin boundaries include the dynamic Hall-Petch hardening induced by the multiplication of twin boundaries (TBs) and twin-twin boundariesmore »(TTBs) as well as the hardening effect associated with the energetically unfavorable TTB formation. When the applied plastic strain is larger than 0.05 under NDT and RDC, the tension twin volume fraction is higher than 50%. The twinning-induced texture leads to the activation of non-basal slips mainly in the twinned volume, i.e. prismatic slips under NDT and pyramidal slips under RDC. The low work hardening under NDTOR is due to the prevailing basal slips with reduced twinning activities under NDTOR.« less
  5. This study investigates the disparate impact of internal pores on the fracture behavior of two metal alloys fabricated via laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM)—316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Data from mechanical tests over a range of stress states for dense samples and those with intentionally introduced penny-shaped pores of various diameters were used to contrast the combined impact of pore size and stress state on the fracture behavior of these two materials. The fracture data were used to calibrate and compare multiple fracture models (Mohr-Coulomb, Hosford-Coulomb, and maximum stress criteria), with results compared in equivalent stress (versus stress triaxiality and Lode angle) space, as well as in their conversions to equivalent strain space. For L-PBF 316L, the strain-based fracture models captured the stress state dependent failure behavior up to the largest pore size studied (2400 µm diameter, 16% cross-sectional area of gauge region), while for L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V, the stress-based fracture models better captured the change in failure behavior with pore size up to the largest pore size studied. This difference can be attributed to the relatively high ductility of 316L stainless steel, for which all samples underwent significant plastic deformation prior to failure, contrasted with the relativelymore »low ductility of Ti-6Al-4V, for which, with increasing pore size, the displacement to failure was dominated by elastic deformation.« less