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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 2, 2024

    We use the eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS) to measure the rest-frame 0.1–2.4 keV band X-ray luminosities of ∼600 000 DESI groups using two different algorithms in the overlap region of the two observations. These groups span a large redshift range of 0.0 ≤ zg ≤ 1.0 and group mass range of $10^{10.76}\, h^{-1}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot } \le M_h \le 10^{15.0}\, h^{-1}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$. (1) Using the blind detection pipeline of eFEDS, we find that 10932 X-ray emission peaks can be cross-matched with our groups, ∼38 per cent of which have a signal-to-noise ratio $\rm {S}/\rm {N} \ge 3$ in X-ray detection. Comparing to the numbers reported in previous studies, this matched sample size is a factor of ∼6 larger. (2) By stacking X-ray maps around groups with similar masses and redshifts, we measure the average X-ray luminosity of groups as a function of halo mass in five redshift bins. We find that in a wide halo mass range, the X-ray luminosity, LX, is roughly linearly proportional to Mh and quite independent to the redshift of the groups. (3) We use a Poisson distribution to model the X-ray luminosities obtained using two different algorithms and obtain the best-fit $L_{\rm X}=10^{28.46\pm 0.03}M_{\rm h}^{1.024\pm 0.002}$ and $L_{\rm X}=10^{26.73 \pm 0.04}M_{\rm h}^{1.140 \pm 0.003}$ scaling relations, respectively. The best-fit slopes are flatter than the results previously obtained but closer to a self-similar prediction.

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  3. Abstract A linearly polarized Laguerre–Gaussian (LP-LG) laser beam with a twist index $l = -1$ has field structure that fundamentally differs from the field structure of a conventional linearly polarized Gaussian beam. Close to the axis of the LP-LG beam, the longitudinal electric and magnetic fields dominate over the transverse components. This structure offers an attractive opportunity to accelerate electrons in vacuum. It is shown, using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, that this scenario can be realized by reflecting an LP-LG laser off a plasma with a sharp density gradient. The simulations indicate that a 600 TW LP-LG laser beam effectively injects electrons into the beam during the reflection. The electrons that are injected close to the laser axis experience a prolonged longitudinal acceleration by the longitudinal laser electric field. The electrons form distinct monoenergetic bunches with a small divergence angle. The energy in the most energetic bunch is 0.29 GeV. The bunch charge is 6 pC and its duration is approximately $270$ as. The divergence angle is just ${0.57}^{\circ }$ (10 mrad). By using a linearly polarized rather than a circularly polarized Laguerre–Gaussian beam, our scheme makes it easier to demonstrate the electron acceleration experimentally at a high-power laser facility. 
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  4. Abstract

    The concept of electron acceleration by a laser beam in vacuum is attractive due to its seeming simplicity, but its implementation has been elusive, as it requires efficient electron injection into the beam and a mechanism for counteracting transverse expulsion. Electron injection during laser reflection off a plasma mirror is a promising mechanism, but it is sensitive to the plasma density gradient that is hard to control. We get around this sensitivity by utilizing volumetric injection that takes place when a helical laser beam traverses a low-density target. The electron retention is achieved by choosing the helicity, such that the transverse field profiles are hollow while the longitudinal fields are peaked on central axis. We demonstrate using three-dimensional simulations that a 3 PW helical laser can generate a 50 pC low-divergence electron beam with a maximum energy of 1.5 GeV. The unique features of the beam are short acceleration distance (∼100 μm), compact transverse size, high areal density, and electron bunching (∼100 as bunch duration).

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  5. Abstract Using plasma mirror injection we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that a circularly polarized helical laser pulse can accelerate highly collimated dense bunches of electrons to several hundred MeV using currently available laser systems. The circular-polarized helical (Laguerre–Gaussian) beam has a unique field structure where the transverse fields have helix-like wave-fronts which tend to zero on-axis where, at focus, there are large on-axis longitudinal magnetic and electric fields. The acceleration of electrons by this type of laser pulse is analyzed as a function of radial mode number and it is shown that the radial mode number has a profound effect on electron acceleration close to the laser axis. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations a circular-polarized helical laser beam with power of 0.6 PW is shown to produce several dense attosecond bunches. The bunch nearest the peak of the laser envelope has an energy of 0.47 GeV with spread as narrow as 10%, a charge of 26 pC with duration of ∼ 400 as, and a very low divergence of 20 mrad. The confinement by longitudinal magnetic fields in the near-axis region allows the longitudinal electric fields to accelerate the electrons over a long period after the initial reflection. Both the longitudinal E and B fields are shown to be essential for electron acceleration in this scheme. This opens up new paths toward attosecond electron beams, or attosecond radiation, at many laser facilities around the world. 
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  6. Abstract

    The drive toward non‐von Neumann device architectures has led to an intense focus on insulator‐to‐metal (IMT) and the converse metal‐to‐insulator (MIT) transitions. Studies of electric field‐driven IMT in the prototypical VO2thin‐film channel devices are largely focused on the electrical and elastic responses of the films, but the response of the corresponding TiO2substrate is often overlooked, since it is nominally expected to be electrically passive and elastically rigid. Here, in‐operando spatiotemporal imaging of the coupled elastodynamics using X‐ray diffraction microscopy of a VO2film channel device on TiO2substrate reveals two new surprises. First, the film channel bulges during the IMT, the opposite of the expected shrinking in the film undergoing IMT. Second, a microns thick proximal layer in the substrate also coherently bulges accompanying the IMT in the film, which is completely unexpected. Phase‐field simulations of coupled IMT, oxygen vacancy electronic dynamics, and electronic carrier diffusion incorporating thermal and strain effects suggest that the observed elastodynamics can be explained by the known naturally occurring oxygen vacancies that rapidly ionize (and deionize) in concert with the IMT (MIT). Fast electrical‐triggering of the IMT via ionizing defects and an active “IMT‐like” substrate layer are critical aspects to consider in device applications.

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