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  1. Abstract. Volcanic fallout in polar ice sheets provides important opportunities to date and correlate ice-core records as well as to investigate theenvironmental impacts of eruptions. Only the geochemical characterization of volcanic ash (tephra) embedded in the ice strata can confirm the sourceof the eruption, however, and is a requisite if historical eruption ages are to be used as valid chronological checks on annual ice layercounting. Here we report the investigation of ash particles in a Greenland ice core that are associated with a volcanic sulfuric acid layer previouslyattributed to the 79 CE eruption of Vesuvius. Major and trace element composition of the particles indicates that the tephra does not derive fromVesuvius but most likely originates from an unidentified eruption in the Aleutian arc. Using ash dispersal modeling, we find that only an eruptionlarge enough to include stratospheric injection is likely to account for the sizable (24–85 µm) ash particles observed in the Greenlandice at this time. Despite its likely explosivity, this event does not appear to have triggered significant climate perturbations, unlike some otherlarge extratropical eruptions. In light of a recent re-evaluation of the Greenland ice-core chronologies, our findings further challenge the previousassignation of this volcanic event to 79 CE. We highlight themore »need for the revised Common Era ice-core chronology to be formally accepted by the widerice-core and climate modeling communities in order to ensure robust age linkages to precisely dated historical and paleoclimate proxy records.« less
  2. Abstract

    The processes and ranges of intensive variables that control magma transport and dyke propagation through the crust are poorly understood. Here we show that textural and compositional data of olivine crystals (Mg/Fe, Ni and P) from the tephra of the first months of Paricutin volcano monogenetic eruption (Mexico, 1943–1952) record fast growth and large temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients. We interpret that these gradients are due to convective magma transport in a propagating dyke to the Earth’s surface in less than a few days. The shortest time we have obtained is 0.1 day, and more than 50% of the calculated timescales are < 2 days for the earliest erupted tephra, which implies magma ascent rates of about 0.1 and 1 m s−1. The olivine zoning patterns change with the eruptive stratigraphy, and record a transition towards a more steady magma flow before the transition from explosive to effusive dynamics. Our results can inform numerical and experimental analogue models of dyke propagation, and thus facilitate a better understanding of the seismicity and other precursors of dyke-fed eruptions.