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  1. Abstract

    We present near-infrared (NIR) ground-basedY,J,H, andKimaging obtained in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field (NEP TDF) using the MMT-Magellan Infrared Imager and Spectrometer on the MMT. These new observations cover a field of approximately 230 arcmin2inY,H, andK,and 313 arcmin2inJ. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate a 1σdepth relative to the background sky of (Y, J, H, K) = (23.80, 23.53, 23.13, 23.28) in AB magnitudes for point sources at a 95% completeness level. These observations are part of the ground-based effort to characterize this region of the sky, supplementing space-based data obtained with Chandra, NuSTAR, XMM, AstroSat, Hubble Space Telescope, and JWST. This paper describes the observations and reduction of the NIR imaging and combines these NIR data with archival imaging in the visible, obtained with the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam, to produce a merged catalog of 57,501 sources. The new observations reported here, plus the corresponding multiwavelength catalog, will provide a baseline for time-domain studies of bright sources in the NEP TDF.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Wide, deep, blind continuum surveys at submillimetre/millimetre (submm/mm) wavelengths are required to provide a full inventory of the dusty, distant Universe. However, conducting such surveys to the necessary depth, with sub-arcsec angular resolution, is prohibitively time-consuming, even for the most advanced submm/mm telescopes. Here, we report the most recent results from the ALMACAL project, which exploits the ‘free’ calibration data from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to map the lines of sight towards and beyond the ALMA calibrators. ALMACAL has now covered 1001 calibrators, with a total sky coverage around 0.3 deg2, distributed across the sky accessible from the Atacama desert, and has accumulated more than 1000 h of integration. The depth reached by combining multiple visits to each field makes ALMACAL capable of searching for faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), with detections at multiple frequencies to constrain the emission mechanism. Based on the most up-to-date ALMACAL data base, we report the detection of 186 DSFGs with flux densities down to S870 µm ∼ 0.2 mJy, comparable with existing ALMA large surveys but less susceptible to cosmic variance. We report the number counts at five wavelengths between 870 μm and 3 mm, in ALMA bands 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, providing a benchmark for models of galaxy formation and evolution. By integrating the observed number counts and the best-fitting functions, we also present the resolved fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the CIB spectral shape. Combining existing surveys, ALMA has currently resolved about half of the CIB in the submm/mm regime.

     
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  3. Abstract Radio free–free emission is considered to be one of the most reliable tracers of star formation in galaxies. However, as it constitutes the faintest part of the radio spectrum—being roughly an order of magnitude less luminous than radio synchrotron emission at the GHz frequencies typically targeted in radio surveys—the usage of free–free emission as a star formation rate tracer has mostly remained limited to the local universe. Here, we perform a multifrequency radio stacking analysis using deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations at 1.4, 3, 5, 10, and 34 GHz in the COSMOS and GOODS-North fields to probe free–free emission in typical galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation. We find that z ∼ 0.5–3 star-forming galaxies exhibit radio emission at rest-frame frequencies of ∼65–90 GHz that is ∼1.5–2 times fainter than would be expected from a simple combination of free–free and synchrotron emission, as in the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. We interpret this as a deficit in high-frequency synchrotron emission, while the level of free–free emission is as expected from M82. We additionally provide the first constraints on the cosmic star formation history using free–free emission at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3, which are in good agreement with more established tracers at high redshift. In the future, deep multifrequency radio surveys will be crucial in order to accurately determine the shape of the radio spectrum of faint star-forming galaxies, and to further establish radio free–free emission as a tracer of high-redshift star formation. 
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  4. Abstract We make use of sensitive (9.3 μ Jy beam −1 rms) 1.2 mm continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (ASPECS) large program to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 1362 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z  = 1.5–10 (to ∼7–28 M ⊙ yr −1 at 4 σ over the entire range). We find that the fraction of ALMA-detected galaxies in our z  = 1.5–10 samples increases steeply with stellar mass, with the detection fraction rising from 0% at 10 9.0 M ⊙ to % at >10 10 M ⊙ . Moreover, on stacking all 1253 low-mass (<10 9.25 M ⊙ ) galaxies over the ASPECS footprint, we find a mean continuum flux of −0.1 ± 0.4 μ Jy beam −1 , implying a hard upper limit on the obscured star formation rate of <0.6 M ⊙ yr −1 (4 σ ) in a typical low-mass galaxy. The correlation between the infrared excess (IRX) of UV-selected galaxies ( L IR / L UV ) and the UV-continuum slope is also seen in our ASPECS data and shows consistency with a Calzetti-like relation at > and an SMC-like relation at lower masses. Using stellar mass and β measurements for z  ∼ 2 galaxies over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we derive a new empirical relation between β and stellar mass and then use this correlation to show that our IRX– β and IRX–stellar mass relations are consistent with each other. We then use these constraints to express the IRX as a bivariate function of β and stellar mass. Finally, we present updated estimates of star formation rate density determinations at z  > 3, leveraging present improvements in the measured IRX and recent probes of ultraluminous far-IR galaxies at z  > 2. 
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