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  1. Abstract Radio free–free emission is considered to be one of the most reliable tracers of star formation in galaxies. However, as it constitutes the faintest part of the radio spectrum—being roughly an order of magnitude less luminous than radio synchrotron emission at the GHz frequencies typically targeted in radio surveys—the usage of free–free emission as a star formation rate tracer has mostly remained limited to the local universe. Here, we perform a multifrequency radio stacking analysis using deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations at 1.4, 3, 5, 10, and 34 GHz in the COSMOS and GOODS-North fields tomore »probe free–free emission in typical galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation. We find that z ∼ 0.5–3 star-forming galaxies exhibit radio emission at rest-frame frequencies of ∼65–90 GHz that is ∼1.5–2 times fainter than would be expected from a simple combination of free–free and synchrotron emission, as in the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. We interpret this as a deficit in high-frequency synchrotron emission, while the level of free–free emission is as expected from M82. We additionally provide the first constraints on the cosmic star formation history using free–free emission at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3, which are in good agreement with more established tracers at high redshift. In the future, deep multifrequency radio surveys will be crucial in order to accurately determine the shape of the radio spectrum of faint star-forming galaxies, and to further establish radio free–free emission as a tracer of high-redshift star formation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We make use of sensitive (9.3 μ Jy beam −1 rms) 1.2 mm continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (ASPECS) large program to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 1362 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z  = 1.5–10 (to ∼7–28 M ⊙ yr −1 at 4 σ over the entire range). We find that the fraction of ALMA-detected galaxies in our z  = 1.5–10 samples increases steeply with stellar mass, with the detection fraction rising from 0% at 10 9.0 M ⊙ to % at >10 10 M ⊙ . Moreover,more »on stacking all 1253 low-mass (<10 9.25 M ⊙ ) galaxies over the ASPECS footprint, we find a mean continuum flux of −0.1 ± 0.4 μ Jy beam −1 , implying a hard upper limit on the obscured star formation rate of <0.6 M ⊙ yr −1 (4 σ ) in a typical low-mass galaxy. The correlation between the infrared excess (IRX) of UV-selected galaxies ( L IR / L UV ) and the UV-continuum slope is also seen in our ASPECS data and shows consistency with a Calzetti-like relation at > and an SMC-like relation at lower masses. Using stellar mass and β measurements for z  ∼ 2 galaxies over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we derive a new empirical relation between β and stellar mass and then use this correlation to show that our IRX– β and IRX–stellar mass relations are consistent with each other. We then use these constraints to express the IRX as a bivariate function of β and stellar mass. Finally, we present updated estimates of star formation rate density determinations at z  > 3, leveraging present improvements in the measured IRX and recent probes of ultraluminous far-IR galaxies at z  > 2.« less