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  1. Abstract

    The detection of the hyper-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 221009A enables us to explore the nature of the GRB emission and the origin of very high-energy gamma rays. We analyze the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data of this burst and investigate the GeV–TeV emission in the framework of the external reverse-shock model. We show that the early ∼1–10 GeV emission can be explained by the external inverse-Compton mechanism via upscattering MeV gamma rays by electrons accelerated at the reverse shock, in addition to the synchrotron self-Compton component. The predicted early optical flux could have been brighter than that of the naked-eye GRB 080319B. We also show that proton synchrotron emission from accelerated ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is detectable and could potentially explain ≳TeV photons detected by LHAASO or constrain the UHECR acceleration mechanism. Our model suggests that the detection of(10TeV)photons with energies up to ∼18 TeV is possible for reasonable models of the extragalactic background light without invoking new physics and predicts anticorrelations between MeV photons and TeV photons, which can be tested with the LHAASO data.

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  2. ABSTRACT Millisecond pulsars are very likely the main source of gamma-ray emission from globular clusters. However, the relative contributions of two separate emission processes – curvature radiation from millisecond pulsar magnetospheres versus inverse Compton emission from relativistic pairs launched into the globular cluster environment by millisecond pulsars – have long been unclear. To address this, we search for evidence of inverse Compton emission in 8-yr Fermi–LAT data from the directions of 157 Milky Way globular clusters. We find a mildly statistically significant (3.8σ) correlation between the measured globular cluster gamma-ray luminosities and their photon field energy densities. However, this may also be explained by a hidden correlation between the photon field densities and the stellar encounter rates of globular clusters. Analysed in toto, we demonstrate that the gamma-ray emission of globular clusters can be resolved spectrally into two components: (i) an exponentially cut-off power law and (ii) a pure power law. The latter component – which we uncover at a significance of 8.2σ – has a power index of 2.79 ± 0.25. It is most naturally interpreted as inverse Compton emission by cosmic-ray electrons and positrons injected by millisecond pulsars. We find the luminosity of this power-law component is comparable to, or slightly smaller than, the luminosity of the curved component, suggesting the fraction of millisecond pulsar spin-down luminosity into relativistic leptons is similar to the fraction of the spin-down luminosity into prompt magnetospheric radiation. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The leading explanation of the Fermi Galactic Centre γ-ray excess is the extended emission from an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the Galactic bulge. Such a population would, along with the prompt γ-rays, also inject large quantities of electrons/positrons (e±) into the interstellar medium. These e± could potentially inverse-Compton (IC) scatter ambient photons into γ-rays that fall within the sensitivity range of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this article, we examine the detection potential of CTA to this signature by making a realistic estimation of the systematic uncertainties on the Galactic diffuse emission model at TeV-scale γ-ray energies. We forecast that, in the event that e± injection spectra are harder than E−2, CTA has the potential to robustly discover the IC signature of a putative Galactic bulge MSP population sufficient to explain the Galactic Centre excess for e± injection efficiencies in the range of ≈2.9–74.1 per cent, or higher, depending on the level of mismodelling of the Galactic diffuse emission components. On the other hand, for spectra softer than E−2.5, a reliable CTA detection would require an unphysically large e± injection efficiency of ${\gtrsim} 158{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. However, even this pessimistic conclusion may be avoided in the plausible event that MSP observational and/or modelling uncertainties can be reduced. We further find that, in the event that an IC signal were detected, CTA can successfully discriminate between an MSP and a dark matter origin for the radiating e±. 
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