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  1. Abstract The emergence of atomically thin van der Waals magnets provides a new platform for the studies of two-dimensional magnetism and its applications. However, the widely used measurement methods in recent studies cannot provide quantitative information of the magnetization nor achieve nanoscale spatial resolution. These capabilities are essential to explore the rich properties of magnetic domains and spin textures. Here, we employ cryogenic scanning magnetometry using a single-electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy center in a diamond probe to unambiguously prove the existence of magnetic domains and study their dynamics in atomically thin CrBr 3 . By controlling the magnetic domain evolution as a function of magnetic field, we find that the pinning effect is a dominant coercivity mechanism and determine the magnetization of a CrBr 3 bilayer to be about 26 Bohr magnetons per square nanometer. The high spatial resolution of this technique enables imaging of magnetic domains and allows to locate the sites of defects that pin the domain walls and nucleate the reverse domains. Our work highlights scanning nitrogen-vacancy center magnetometry as a quantitative probe to explore nanoscale features in two-dimensional magnets.
  2. Moiré superlattices of twisted nonmagnetic two-dimensional (2D) materials are highly controllable platforms for the engineering of exotic correlated and topological states. Here, we report emerging magnetic textures in small-angle twisted 2D magnet chromium triiodide (CrI 3 ). Using single-spin quantum magnetometry, we directly visualized nanoscale magnetic domains and periodic patterns, a signature of moiré magnetism, and measured domain size and magnetization. In twisted bilayer CrI 3 , we observed the coexistence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) domains with disorder-like spatial patterns. In twisted double-trilayer CrI 3 , AFM and FM domains with periodic patterns appear, which is in good agreement with the calculated spatial magnetic structures that arise from the local stacking-dependent interlayer exchange interactions in CrI 3 moiré superlattices. Our results highlight magnetic moiré superlattices as a platform for exploring nanomagnetism.
  3. Abstract

    The interplay between band topology and magnetism can give rise to exotic states of matter. For example, magnetically doped topological insulators can realize a Chern insulator that exhibits quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. While prior works have focused on ferromagnetic systems, little is known about band topology and its manipulation in antiferromagnets. Here, we report that MnBi2Te4is a rare platform for realizing a canted-antiferromagnetic (cAFM) Chern insulator with electrical control. We show that the Chern insulator state with Chern numberC = 1 appears as the AFM to canted-AFM phase transition happens. The Chern insulator state is further confirmed by observing the unusual transition of theC = 1 state in the cAFM phase to theC = 2 orbital quantum Hall states in the magnetic field induced ferromagnetic phase. Near the cAFM-AFM phase boundary, we show that the dissipationless chiral edge transport can be toggled on and off by applying an electric field alone. We attribute this switching effect to the electrical field tuning of the exchange gap alignment between the top and bottom surfaces. Our work paves the way for future studies on topological cAFM spintronics and facilitates the development of proof-of-concept Chern insulator devices.