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Title: Direct visualization of magnetic domains and moiré magnetism in twisted 2D magnets
Moiré superlattices of twisted nonmagnetic two-dimensional (2D) materials are highly controllable platforms for the engineering of exotic correlated and topological states. Here, we report emerging magnetic textures in small-angle twisted 2D magnet chromium triiodide (CrI 3 ). Using single-spin quantum magnetometry, we directly visualized nanoscale magnetic domains and periodic patterns, a signature of moiré magnetism, and measured domain size and magnetization. In twisted bilayer CrI 3 , we observed the coexistence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) domains with disorder-like spatial patterns. In twisted double-trilayer CrI 3 , AFM and FM domains with periodic patterns appear, which is in good agreement with the calculated spatial magnetic structures that arise from the local stacking-dependent interlayer exchange interactions in CrI 3 moiré superlattices. Our results highlight magnetic moiré superlattices as a platform for exploring nanomagnetism.
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  1. We apply the density-functional theory to study various phases (including non-magnetic (NM), anti-ferromagnetic (AFM), and ferromagnetic (FM)) in monolayer magnetic chromium triiodide (CrI 3 ), a recently fabricated 2D magnetic material. It is found that: (1) the introduction of magnetism in monolayer CrI 3 gives rise to metal-to-semiconductor transition; (2) the electronic band topologies as well as the nature of direct and indirect band gaps in either AFM or FM phases exhibit delicate dependence on the magnetic ordering and spin–orbit coupling; and (3) the phonon modes involving Cr atoms are particularly sensitive to the magnetic ordering, highlighting distinct spin–lattice and spin–phonon coupling in this magnet. First-principles simulations of the Raman spectra demonstrate that both frequencies and intensities of the Raman peaks strongly depend on the magnetic ordering. The polarization dependent A 1g modes at 77 cm −1 and 130 cm −1 along with the E g mode at about 50 cm −1 in the FM phase may offer a useful fingerprint to characterize this material. Our results not only provide a detailed guiding map for experimental characterization of CrI 3 , but also reveal how the evolution of magnetism can be tracked by its lattice dynamics and Raman response.
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