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  1. A Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) apparatus was designed and developed for SARS-CoV-2 killing as evaluated by pseudotyped viral infectivity assays. The reactive species generated by the plasma system was fully characterized by using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) measurement under given conditions such as plasma power, flow rate, and treatment time. A variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) were identified from plasma plume with energies of 15–72 eV in the frequency range between 500–1000 nm. Systematic virus killing experiments were carried out, and the efficacy of CAP treatment in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral infectivity was significant following treatment for 8 s, with further enhancement of killing upon longer exposures of 15–120 s. We correlated killing efficacy with the reactive species in terms of type, intensity, energy, and frequency. These experimental results demonstrate effective cold plasma virus killing via ROS and RNS under ambient conditions. 
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