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Plasticity Enhancement by Fe-Addition on NiAl Alloy: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Mapping and Molecular Dynamics Simulation StudyUnalloyed nickel aluminide has important applications but lacks ductility at room temperature. In this study, iron-added nickel aluminide alloys exhibit plasticity enhancement. The nickel aluminide alloys are prepared with different iron contents (0, 0.25, and 1 at%) to study their plasticity. The indentation-induced deformed areas are mapped by the synchrotron X-ray diffraction to compare their plastic zones. A complimentary tight binding calculation and generalized embedded atom method demonstrate how the Fe-addition enhances the plasticity of the iron-added nickel aluminide alloys.
The pioneer transcription factor (TF) PU.1 controls hematopoietic cell fate by decompacting stem cell heterochromatin and allowing nonpioneer TFs to enter otherwise inaccessible genomic sites. PU.1 deficiency fatally arrests lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis in mice, but human congenital PU.1 disorders have not previously been described. We studied six unrelated agammaglobulinemic patients, each harboring a heterozygous mutation (four de novo, two unphased) of SPI1, the gene encoding PU.1. Affected patients lacked circulating B cells and possessed few conventional dendritic cells. Introducing disease-similar SPI1 mutations into human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells impaired early in vitro B cell and myeloid cell differentiation. Patient SPI1 mutations encoded destabilized PU.1 proteins unable to nuclear localize or bind target DNA. In PU.1-haploinsufficient pro–B cell lines, euchromatin was less accessible to nonpioneer TFs critical for B cell development, and gene expression patterns associated with the pro– to pre–B cell transition were undermined. Our findings molecularly describe a novel form of agammaglobulinemia and underscore PU.1’s critical, dose-dependent role as a hematopoietic euchromatin gatekeeper.