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  1. Abstract

    Lindqvist polyoxovanadate‐alkoxide (POV‐alkoxide) clusters are excellent candidates for applications in energy storage and conversion due to their rich electrochemical profiles. One approach to tune the redox properties of these cluster complexes is through substitutional cationic doping within the hexavanadate core. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of tungsten‐substituted POV‐alkoxide clusters with one and two tungsten atoms. Soft landing of mass‐selected ions was used to purify heterometal POV‐alkoxides that cannot be readily separated using conventional approaches. The soft landed POV‐alkoxides are characterized using infrared reflection‐absorption spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The redox properties of the isolated ions are examined using an in situ electrochemical cell which enables traditional in vacuo electrochemical measurements inside of an ion soft landing instrument. Although the overall cluster core retains redox activity after tungsten doping, vanadium‐based redox couples (VV/VIV) are shifted substantially, indicating a pronounced effect of a heteroatom on the electronic structure of the core.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Unraveling the complexity of biological systems relies on the development of new approaches for spatially resolved proteoform‐specific analysis of the proteome. Herein, we employ nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano‐DESI MSI) for the proteoform‐selective imaging of biological tissues. Nano‐DESI generates multiply charged protein ions, which is advantageous for their structural characterization using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) directly on the tissue. Proof‐of‐concept experiments demonstrate that nano‐DESI MSI combined with on‐tissue top‐down proteomics is ideally suited for the proteoform‐selective imaging of tissue sections. Using rat brain tissue as a model system, we provide the first evidence of differential proteoform expression in different regions of the brain.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Unraveling the complexity of biological systems relies on the development of new approaches for spatially resolved proteoform‐specific analysis of the proteome. Herein, we employ nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano‐DESI MSI) for the proteoform‐selective imaging of biological tissues. Nano‐DESI generates multiply charged protein ions, which is advantageous for their structural characterization using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) directly on the tissue. Proof‐of‐concept experiments demonstrate that nano‐DESI MSI combined with on‐tissue top‐down proteomics is ideally suited for the proteoform‐selective imaging of tissue sections. Using rat brain tissue as a model system, we provide the first evidence of differential proteoform expression in different regions of the brain.

     
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  4. Abstract

    In long‐term clinical studies, recurrent event data are sometimes collected and used to contrast the efficacies of two different treatments. The event reoccurrence rates can be compared using the popular negative binomial model, which incorporates information related to patient heterogeneity into a data analysis. For treatment allocation, a balanced approach in which equal sample sizes are obtained for both treatments is predominately adopted. However, if one treatment is superior, then it may be desirable to allocate fewer subjects to the less‐effective treatment. To accommodate this objective, a sequential response‐adaptive treatment allocation procedure is derived based on the doubly adaptive biased coin design. Our proposed treatment allocation schemes have been shown to be capable of reducing the number of subjects receiving the inferior treatment while simultaneously retaining a test power level that is comparable to that of a balanced design. The redesign of a clinical study illustrates the advantages of using our procedure.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Titanium metal–organic frameworks (Ti‐MOFs), as an appealing type of artificial photocatalyst, have shown great potential in the field of solar energy conversion due to their well‐studied photoredox activity (similar to TiO2) and good optical responsiveness of linkers, which serve as the antenna to absorb visible‐light. Although much effort has been dedicated to developing Ti‐MOFs with high photocatalytic activity, their solar energy conversion performances are still poor. Herein, we have implemented a covalent‐integration strategy to construct a series of multivariate Ti‐MOF/COF hybrid materials PdTCPP⊂PCN‐415(NH2)/TpPa (composites 1, 2, and 3), featuring excellent visible‐light utilization, a suitable band gap, and high surface area for photocatalytic H2production. Notably, the resulting composites demonstrated remarkably enhanced visible‐light‐driven photocatalytic H2evolution performance, especially for the composite 2 with a maximum H2evolution rate of 13.98 mmol g−1 h−1(turnover frequency (TOF)=227 h−1), which is much higher than that of PdTCPP⊂PCN‐415(NH2) (0.21 mmol g−1 h−1) and TpPa (6.51 mmol g−1 h−1). Our work thereby suggests a new approach to highly efficient photocatalysts for H2evolution and beyond.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Titanium metal–organic frameworks (Ti‐MOFs), as an appealing type of artificial photocatalyst, have shown great potential in the field of solar energy conversion due to their well‐studied photoredox activity (similar to TiO2) and good optical responsiveness of linkers, which serve as the antenna to absorb visible‐light. Although much effort has been dedicated to developing Ti‐MOFs with high photocatalytic activity, their solar energy conversion performances are still poor. Herein, we have implemented a covalent‐integration strategy to construct a series of multivariate Ti‐MOF/COF hybrid materials PdTCPP⊂PCN‐415(NH2)/TpPa (composites 1, 2, and 3), featuring excellent visible‐light utilization, a suitable band gap, and high surface area for photocatalytic H2production. Notably, the resulting composites demonstrated remarkably enhanced visible‐light‐driven photocatalytic H2evolution performance, especially for the composite 2 with a maximum H2evolution rate of 13.98 mmol g−1 h−1(turnover frequency (TOF)=227 h−1), which is much higher than that of PdTCPP⊂PCN‐415(NH2) (0.21 mmol g−1 h−1) and TpPa (6.51 mmol g−1 h−1). Our work thereby suggests a new approach to highly efficient photocatalysts for H2evolution and beyond.

     
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  7. Abstract

    Unraveling the complexity of the lipidome requires the development of novel approaches for the structural characterization of lipid species with isomer‐level discrimination. Herein, we introduce an online photochemical approach for lipid isomer identification through selective derivatization of double bonds by reaction with singlet oxygen. Lipid hydroperoxide products are generated promptly after laser irradiation. Fragmentation of these species in a mass spectrometer produces diagnostic fragments revealing the C=C locations in the unreacted lipids. This approach uses an inexpensive light source and photosensitizer making it easy to incorporate into any lipidomics workflow. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for the shotgun profiling of C=C locations in different lipid classes present in tissue extracts using electrospray ionization (ESI) and ambient imaging of lipid species differing only by the location of C=C bonds using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano‐DESI).

     
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  8. Abstract

    Unraveling the complexity of the lipidome requires the development of novel approaches for the structural characterization of lipid species with isomer‐level discrimination. Herein, we introduce an online photochemical approach for lipid isomer identification through selective derivatization of double bonds by reaction with singlet oxygen. Lipid hydroperoxide products are generated promptly after laser irradiation. Fragmentation of these species in a mass spectrometer produces diagnostic fragments revealing the C=C locations in the unreacted lipids. This approach uses an inexpensive light source and photosensitizer making it easy to incorporate into any lipidomics workflow. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for the shotgun profiling of C=C locations in different lipid classes present in tissue extracts using electrospray ionization (ESI) and ambient imaging of lipid species differing only by the location of C=C bonds using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano‐DESI).

     
    more » « less