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  1. Abstract Magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) based on voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is a promising candidate for high-performance computing applications, due to its lower power consumption, higher bit density, and the ability to reduce the access transistor size when compared to conventional current-controlled spin-transfer torque MRAM. The key to realizing these advantages is to have a low MTJ switching voltage. Here, we report a perpendicular MTJ structure with a high voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy coefficient ~130 fJ/Vm and high tunnel magnetoresistance exceeding 150%. Owing to the high voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy coefficient, we demonstrate sub-nanosecond precessional switching of nanoscale MTJs with diameters of 50 and 70 nm, using a voltage lower than 1 V. We also show scaling of this switching mechanism down to 30 nm MTJs, with voltages close to 2 V. The results pave the path for the future development and application of voltage-controlled MRAMs and spintronic devices in emerging computing systems. 
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    A major recent breakthrough in materials science is the emergence of intrinsic magnetism in two-dimensional (2D) crystals, which opens the door to more cutting-edge fields in the 2D family and could eventually lead to novel data-storage and information devices with further miniaturization. Herein we propose an experimentally feasible 2D material, Fe 2 I 2 , which is an intrinsic room-temperature ferromagnet exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that single-layer (SL) Fe 2 I 2 is a spin-gapless semiconductor with a spin-polarized Dirac cone and linear energy dispersion in one spin channel, exhibiting promising dissipation-less transport properties with a Fermi velocity up to 6.39 × 10 5 m s −1 . Our results reveal that both strain and ferroelectric polarization switching could induce an out-of- to in-plane spin reorientation in the 2D Fe 2 I 2 layer, revealing its advantage in assembling spintronic devices. In addition, spin–orbit coupling (SOC) triggers a topologically nontrivial band gap of 301 meV with a nonzero Chern number (| C | = 2), giving rise to a robust quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. The 2D crystal also exhibits high carrier mobilites of 0.452 × 10 3 and 0.201 × 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 for the electrons and holes, respectively. The combination of these unique properties renders the 2D Fe 2 I 2 ferromagnet a promising platform for high efficiency multi-functional spintronic applications. 
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  5. The realization of robust intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) materials in conjunction with the intriguing quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has provided a fertile ground for novel physics and for the next-generation spintronic and topological devices. On the basis of density functional theory (DFT), we predict that layered 5d transition-metal heavier halides (TMHs), such as ReX 3 (X = Br, I), show intrinsic ferromagnetism with high spin polarization and high Curie temperatures. The outstanding dynamic and thermodynamic stability ensures their experimental feasibility. The strong spin–orbit coupling (SOC) of Re makes the electronic structure of the ReI 3 monolayer topologically nontrivial with a large Chern number ( C = −4). DFT+ U calculations reveal that the 2D system undergoes a nontrivial to trivial transition with increasing on-site Hubbard Coulomb interaction U through the emergence of a Dirac cone. This transition is corroborated by the emergence of chiral edge states and the anomalous Hall conductivity. These findings not only demonstrate room-temperature ferromagnetism in atomically thin 5d TMHs, but also pave the way for the potential realization of the QAH effect with high Chern numbers in pristine 2D layers. 
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