Analog photonic solutions offer unique opportunities to address complex computational tasks with unprecedented performance in terms of energy dissipation and speeds, overcoming current limitations of modern computing architectures based on electron flows and digital approaches. The lack of modularization and lumped element reconfigurability in photonics has prevented the transition to an all-optical analog computing platform. Here, we explore, using numerical simulation, a nanophotonic platform based on epsilon-near-zero materials capable of solving in the analog domain partial differential equations (PDE). Wavelength stretching in zero-index media enables highly nonlocal interactions within the board based on the conduction of electric displacement, which can be monitored to extract the solution of a broad class of PDE problems. By exploiting the experimentally achieved control of deposition technique through process parameters, used in our simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of implementing the proposed nano-optic processor using CMOS-compatible indium-tin-oxide, whose optical properties can be tuned by carrier injection to obtain programmability at high speeds and low energy requirements. Our nano-optical analog processor can be integrated at chip-scale, processing arbitrary inputs at the speed of light.
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Abstract When solving, modeling or reasoning about complex problems, it is usually convenient to use the knowledge of a parallel physical system for representing it. This is the case of lumped-circuit abstraction, which can be used for representing mechanical and acoustic systems, thermal and heat-diffusion problems and in general partial differential equations. Integrated photonic platforms hold the prospective to perform signal processing and analog computing inherently, by mapping into hardware specific operations which relies on the wave-nature of their signals, without trusting on logic gates and digital states like electronics. Here, we argue that in absence of a straightforward parallelism a homomorphism can be induced. We introduce a photonic platform capable of mimicking Kirchhoff’s law in photonics and used as node of a finite difference mesh for solving partial differential equation using monochromatic light in the telecommunication wavelength. Our approach experimentally demonstrates an arbitrary set of boundary conditions, generating a one-shot discrete solution of a Laplace partial differential equation, with an accuracy above 95% with respect to commercial solvers. Our photonic engine can provide a route to achieve chip-scale, fast (10 s of ps), and integrable reprogrammable accelerators for the next generation hybrid high-performance computing. Summary A photonic integrated platform whichmore »
The Chinese mitten crab genome provides insights into adaptive plasticity and developmental regulationAbstract The infraorder Brachyura (true or short-tailed crabs) represents a successful group of marine invertebrates yet with limited genomic resources. Here we report a chromosome-anchored reference genome and transcriptomes of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis , a catadromous crab and invasive species with wide environmental tolerance, strong osmoregulatory capacity and high fertility. We show the expansion of specific gene families in the crab, including F-ATPase, which enhances our knowledge on the adaptive plasticity of this successful invasive species. Our analysis of spatio-temporal transcriptomes and the genome of E. sinensis and other decapods shows that brachyurization development is associated with down-regulation of Hox genes at the megalopa stage when tail shortening occurs. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating sexual development is achieved by integrated analysis of multiple omics. These genomic resources significantly expand the gene repertoire of Brachyura, and provide insights into the biology of this group, and Crustacea in general.