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  1. Abstract

    We demonstrate how to obtain integrability results for the Schramm‐Loewner evolution (SLE) from Liouville conformal field theory (LCFT) and the mating‐of‐trees framework for Liouville quantum gravity (LQG). In particular, we prove an exact formula for the law of a conformal derivative of a classical variant of SLE called . Our proof is built on two connections between SLE, LCFT, and mating‐of‐trees. Firstly, LCFT and mating‐of‐trees provide equivalent but complementary methods to describe natural random surfaces in LQG. Using a novel tool that we call theuniform embeddingof an LQG surface, we extend earlier equivalence results by allowing fewer marked points and more generic singularities. Secondly, the conformal welding of these random surfaces produces SLE curves as their interfaces. In particular, we rely on the conformal welding results proved in our companion paper Ang, Holden and Sun (2023). Our paper is an essential part of a program proving integrability results for SLE, LCFT, and mating‐of‐trees based on these two connections.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 16, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) account for about 30% of total oceanic fixed nitrogen loss via processes including denitrification, a microbially mediated pathway proceeding stepwise from NO3− to N2. This process may be performed entirely by complete denitrifiers capable of all four enzymatic steps, but many organisms possess only partial denitrification pathways, either producing or consuming key intermediates such as the greenhouse gas N2O. Metagenomics and marker gene surveys have revealed a diversity of denitrification genes within ODZs, but whether these genes co-occur within complete or partial denitrifiers and the identities of denitrifying taxa remain open questions. We assemble genomes from metagenomes spanning the ETNP and Arabian Sea, and map these metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to 56 metagenomes from all three major ODZs to reveal the predominance of partial denitrifiers, particularly single-step denitrifiers. We find niche differentiation among nitrogen-cycling organisms, with communities performing each nitrogen transformation distinct in taxonomic identity and motility traits. Our collection of 962 MAGs presents the largest collection of pelagic ODZ microorganisms and reveals a clearer picture of the nitrogen cycling community within this environment.

     
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  4. Abstract. Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), due to their large volumes of perennially deoxygenated waters, are critical regions for understanding how the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic nitrogen (N) cycling microbial pathways affects the marine N budget. Here, we present a suite of measurements of the most significant OMZ N cycling rates, which all involve nitrite (NO2-) as a product, reactant, or intermediate, in the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ. These measurements and comparisons to data from previously published OMZ cruisespresent additional evidence that NO3- reduction is the predominant OMZ N flux, followed by NO2- oxidation back to NO3-. The combined rates of both of these N recycling processes were observed to be much greater (up to nearly 200 times) thanthe combined rates of the N loss processes of anammox and denitrification, especially in waters near the anoxic–oxic interface. We also showthat NO2- oxidation can occur when O2 is maintained near 1 nM by a continuous-purge system, NO2-oxidation and O2 measurements that further strengthen the case for truly anaerobic NO2- oxidation. We also evaluate thepossibility that NO2- dismutation provides the oxidative power for anaerobic NO2- oxidation. The partitioning ofN loss between anammox and denitrification differed widely from stoichiometric predictions of at most 29 % anammox; in fact,N loss rates at many depths were entirely due to anammox. Our new NO3- reduction, NO2- oxidation, dismutation, andN loss data shed light on many open questions in OMZ N cycling research, especially the possibility of truly anaerobicNO2- oxidation.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Fixed nitrogen limits primary productivity in most areas of the surface ocean. Nitrite oxidation is the main source of nitrate, the most abundant form of inorganic fixed nitrogen. Even though known as an aerobic process, nitrite oxidation is not always stimulated by increased oxygen concentration, and nitrite oxidation occurs in layers of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) where oxygen is not detectable. Nitrite‐oxidizing bacteria, known since their original isolation as aerobes, were also detected in these layers. Whether and how nitrite oxidation is occurring in the anoxic seawater is debated. Here, we reassess recent advances in marine nitrite oxidation in OMZ regions using previous work and new data sets we collected in two Pacific OMZs. We analyze the complex relationship between nitrite oxidation and oxygen. We discuss potential mechanisms explaining nitrite oxidation in different layers of OMZs based on recent findings and propose future directions to resolve the controversial question of apparently anaerobic nitrite oxidation in anoxic layers.

     
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