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Creators/Authors contains: "Sun, Xuepeng"

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  1. Abstract

    Pepper (Capsicumspp.) is one of the earliest cultivated crops and includes five domesticated species,C. annuumvar.annuum,C. chinense,C. frutescens,C. baccatumvar.pendulumandC. pubescens. Here, we report a pepper graph pan-genome and a genome variation map of 500 accessions from the five domesticatedCapsicumspecies and close wild relatives. We identify highly differentiated genomic regions among the domesticated peppers that underlie their natural variations in flowering time, characteristic flavors, and unique resistances to biotic and abiotic stresses. Domestication sweeps detected inC. annuumvar.annuumandC. baccatumvar.pendulumare mostly different, and the common domestication traits, including fruit size, shape and pungency, are achieved mainly through the selection of distinct genomic regions between these two cultivated species. Introgressions fromC. baccatumintoC. chinenseandC. frutescensare detected, including those providing genetic sources for various biotic and abiotic stress tolerances.

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  2. Abstract

    Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors constitute a superfamily in eukaryotes, but their roles in plant immunity remain largely uncharacterized. We found that the transcript abundance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves of one bHLH transcription factor-encoding gene, negative regulator of resistance to DC3000 1 (Nrd1), increased significantly after treatment with the immunity-inducing flgII-28 peptide. Plants carrying a loss-of-function mutation in Nrd1 (Δnrd1) showed enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 although early pattern-triggered immunity responses, such as generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases after treatment with flagellin-derived flg22 and flgII-28 peptides, were unaltered compared to wild-type plants. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis identified a gene, Arabinogalactan protein 1 (Agp1), whose expression is strongly suppressed in an Nrd1-dependent manner. Agp1 encodes an arabinogalactan protein, and overexpression of the Agp1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana led to ∼10-fold less Pst growth compared to the control. These results suggest that the Nrd1 protein promotes tomato susceptibility to Pst by suppressing the defense gene Agp1. RNA-seq also revealed that the loss of Nrd1 function has no effect on the transcript abundance of immunity-associated genes, including AvrPtoB tomato-interacting 9 (Bti9), Cold-shock protein receptor (Core), Flagellin sensing 2 (Fls2), Flagellin sensing (Fls3), and Wall-associated kinase 1 (Wak1) upon Pst inoculation, suggesting that the enhanced immunity observed in the Δnrd1 mutants is due to the activation of key PRR signaling components as well as the loss of Nrd1-regulated suppression of Agp1.

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  3. Abstract

    Spinach is a nutritious leafy vegetable belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. Here we report a high-quality chromosome-scale reference genome assembly of spinach and genome resequencing of 305 cultivated and wild spinach accessions. Reconstruction of ancestral Chenopodiaceae karyotype indicates substantial genome rearrangements in spinach after its divergence from ancestral Chenopodiaceae, coinciding with high repeat content in the spinach genome. Population genomic analyses provide insights into spinach genetic diversity and population differentiation. Genome-wide association studies of 20 agronomical traits identify numerous significantly associated regions and candidate genes for these traits. Domestication sweeps in the spinach genome are identified, some of which are associated with important traits (e.g., leaf phenotype, bolting and flowering), demonstrating the role of artificial selection in shaping spinach phenotypic evolution. This study provides not only insights into the spinach evolution and domestication but also valuable resources for facilitating spinach breeding.

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  4. Abstract

    Domestication of the apple was mainly driven by interspecific hybridization. In the present study, we report the haplotype-resolved genomes of the cultivated apple (Malus domesticacv. Gala) and its two major wild progenitors,M. sieversiiandM. sylvestris. Substantial variations are identified between the two haplotypes of each genome. Inference of genome ancestry identifies ~23% of the Gala genome as of hybrid origin. Deep sequencing of 91 accessions identifies selective sweeps in cultivated apples that originated from either of the two progenitors and are associated with important domestication traits. Construction and analyses of apple pan-genomes uncover thousands of new genes, with hundreds of them being selected from one of the progenitors and largely fixed in cultivated apples, revealing that introgression of new genes/alleles is a hallmark of apple domestication through hybridization. Finally, transcriptome profiles of Gala fruits at 13 developmental stages unravel ~19% of genes displaying allele-specific expression, including many associated with fruit quality.

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