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  1. Abstract. Extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) has been a well-knowntechnique for high-throughput online molecular characterization of chemicalreaction products and intermediates, detection of native biomolecules, invivo metabolomics, and environmental monitoring with negligible thermal andionization-induced fragmentation for over two decades. However, the EESIextraction mechanism remains uncertain. Prior studies disagree on whetherparticles between 20 and 400 nm diameter are fully extracted or if theextraction is limited to the surface layer. Here, we examined the analyteextraction mechanism by assessing the influence of particle size and coatingthickness on the detection of the molecules therein. We find that particlesare extracted fully: organics-coated NH4NO3 particles with afixed core volume (156 and 226 nm in diameter without coating) showedconstant EESI signals for NH4NO3 independent of the shell coatingthickness, while the signals of the secondary organic molecules comprisingthe shell varied proportionally to the shell volume. We also found that theEESI sensitivity exhibited a strong size dependence, with an increase insensitivity by 1–3 orders of magnitude as particle size decreasedfrom 300 to 30 nm. This dependence varied with the electrospray (ES)droplet size, the particle size and the residence time for coagulation in theEESI inlet, suggesting that the EESI sensitivity was influenced by thecoagulation coefficient between particles and ES droplets. Overall, ourresults indicate that, inmore »the EESI, particles are fully extracted by the ESdroplets regardless of the chemical composition, when they are collected bythe ES droplets. However, their coalescence is not complete and dependsstrongly on their size. This size dependence is especially relevant whenEESI is used to probe size-varying particles as is the case in aerosolformation and growth studies with size ranges below 100 nm.« less
  2. Aerosol particles negatively affect human health while also having climatic relevance due to, for example, their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Ultrafine particles (diameter D p < 100 nm) typically comprise the largest fraction of the total number concentration, however, their chemical characterization is difficult because of their low mass. Using an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), we characterize the molecular composition of freshly nucleated particles from naphthalene and β-caryophyllene oxidation products at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We perform a detailed intercomparison of the organic aerosol chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF and an iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO-I-CIMS). We also use an aerosol growth model based on the condensation of organic vapors to show that the chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF is consistent with the expected condensed oxidation products. This agreement could be further improved by constraining the EESI-TOF compound-specific sensitivity or considering condensed-phase processes. Our results show that the EESI-TOF can obtain the chemical composition of particles as small as 20 nm in diameter with mass loadings as low as hundreds of ng m −3 in real time. This was until nowmore »difficult to achieve, as other online instruments are often limited by size cutoffs, ionization/thermal fragmentation and/or semi-continuous sampling. Using real-time simultaneous gas- and particle-phase data, we discuss the condensation of naphthalene oxidation products on a molecular level.« less
  3. Abstract. Biogenic organic precursors play an important role inatmospheric new particle formation (NPF). One of the major precursor speciesis α-pinene, which upon oxidation can form a suite of productscovering a wide range of volatilities. Highly oxygenated organic molecules(HOMs) comprise a fraction of the oxidation products formed. While it isknown that HOMs contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation,including NPF, they have not been well studied in newly formed particles dueto their very low mass concentrations. Here we present gas- and particle-phase chemical composition data from experimental studies of α-pinene oxidation, including in the presence of isoprene, at temperatures(−50 and −30 ∘C) and relativehumidities (20 % and 60 %) relevant in the upper free troposphere. Themeasurements took place at the CERN Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD)chamber. The particle chemical composition was analyzed by a thermaldesorption differential mobility analyzer (TD-DMA) coupled to a nitratechemical ionization–atmospheric pressure interface–time-of-flight(CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. CI-APi-TOF was used for particle- and gas-phase measurements, applying the same ionization and detection scheme. Ourmeasurements revealed the presence of C8−10 monomers and C18−20dimers as the major compounds in the particles (diameter up to∼ 100 nm). Particularly, for the system with isoprene added,C5 (C5H10O5−7) and C15 compounds(C15H24O5−10) were detected. This observation is consistentwith the previously observed formation ofmore »such compounds in the gas phase. However, although the C5 and C15 compounds do not easily nucleate,our measurements indicate that they can still contribute to the particlegrowth at free tropospheric conditions. For the experiments reported here,most likely isoprene oxidation products enhance the growth of particleslarger than 15 nm. Additionally, we report on the nucleation rates measuredat 1.7 nm (J1.7 nm) and compared with previous studies, we found lowerJ1.7 nm values, very likely due to the higher α-pinene andozone mixing ratios used in the present study.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 30, 2024