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  1. Abstract

    Effective control of magnetic phases in two-dimensional magnets would constitute crucial progress in spintronics, holding great potential for future computing technologies. Here, we report a new approach of leveraging tunneling current as a tool for controlling spin states in CrI3. We reveal that a tunneling current can deterministically switch between spin-parallel and spin-antiparallel states in few-layer CrI3, depending on the polarity and amplitude of the current. We propose a mechanism involving nonequilibrium spin accumulation in the graphene electrodes in contact with the CrI3layers. We further demonstrate tunneling current-tunable stochastic switching between multiple spin states of the CrI3tunnel devices, which goes beyond conventional bi-stable stochastic magnetic tunnel junctions and has not been documented in two-dimensional magnets. Our findings not only address the existing knowledge gap concerning the influence of tunneling currents in controlling the magnetism in two-dimensional magnets, but also unlock possibilities for energy-efficient probabilistic and neuromorphic computing.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 27, 2024
  3. Background: Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting much attention toward easyoperation and size controllable synthesis methods. We develop a method to synthesize MnO, Co,CoO, and Ni nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of metal 2,4-pentanedionates in the presenceof oleylamine (OLA), oleic acid (OA), and 1-octadecene (ODE). Methods: Similar experimental conditions are used to prepare nanoparticles except for the metalstarting materials (manganese 2,4-pentanedionate, nickel 2,4-pentanedionate, and cobalt 2,4-pentanedionate), leading to different products. For the manganese 2,4-pentanedionate startingmaterial, MnO nanoparticles are always obtained as the reaction is controlled with differenttemperatures, precursor concentrations, ligand ratios, and reaction time. For the cobalt 2,4-pentanedionate starting material, only three experimental conditions can produce pure phase CoOand Co nanoparticles. For the nickel 2,4-pentanedionate starting material, only three experimentalconditions lead to the production of pure phase Ni nanoparticles. Results: The nanoparticle sizes increase with the increase of reaction temperatures. It is observedthat the reaction time affects nanoparticle growth. The nanoparticles are studied by XRD, TEM,and magnetic measurements. Conclusion: This work presents a facile method to prepare nanoparticles with different sizes,which provides a fundamental understanding of nanoparticle growth in solution. 
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  4. Topological Dirac semimetal α-Sn exhibits unexpectedly large bilinear magnetoelectric resistance at room temperature. 
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    CrBr 3 is a layered van der Waals material with magnetic ordering down to the 2D limit. For decades, based on optical measurements, it is believed that the energy gap of CrBr 3 is in the range of 1.68–2.1 eV. However, controversial results have indicated that the band gap of CrBr 3 is possibly smaller than that. An unambiguous determination of the energy gap is critical to the correct interpretations of the experimental results of CrBr 3 . Here, we present the scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) results of CrBr 3 thin and thick flakes exfoliated onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to reveal the small energy gap (peak-to-peak energy gap to be 0.57 ± 0.04 eV; or the onset signal energy gap to be 0.29 ± 0.05 eV from d I /d V spectra). Atomic resolution topography images show the defect-free crystal structure and the d I /d V spectra exhibit multiple peak features measured at 77 K. The conduction band – valence band peak pairs in the multi-peak d I /d V spectrum agree very well with all reported optical transitions. STM topography images of mono- and bi-layer CrBr 3 flakes exhibit edge degradation due to short air exposure (∼15 min) during sample transfer. The unambiguously determined small energy gap settles the controversy and is the key in better understanding CrBr 3 and similar materials. 
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