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Creators/Authors contains: "Tanvir, Raihanul Bari"

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  1. Background: Long non-coding RNA plays a vital role in changing the expression profiles of various target genes that lead to cancer development. Thus, identifying prognostic lncRNAs related to different cancers might help in developing cancer therapy. Method: To discover the critical lncRNAs that can identify the origin of different cancers, we propose the use of the state-of-the-art deep learning algorithm concrete autoencoder (CAE) in an unsupervised setting, which efficiently identifies a subset of the most informative features. However, CAE does not identify reproducible features in different runs due to its stochastic nature. We thus propose a multi-run CAE (mrCAE) tomore »identify a stable set of features to address this issue. The assumption is that a feature appearing in multiple runs carries more meaningful information about the data under consideration. The genome-wide lncRNA expression profiles of 12 different types of cancers, with a total of 4768 samples available in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), were analyzed to discover the key lncRNAs. The lncRNAs identified by multiple runs of CAE were added to a final list of key lncRNAs that are capable of identifying 12 different cancers. Results: Our results showed that mrCAE performs better in feature selection than single-run CAE, standard autoencoder (AE), and other state-of-the-art feature selection techniques. This study revealed a set of top-ranking 128 lncRNAs that could identify the origin of 12 different cancers with an accuracy of 95%. Survival analysis showed that 76 of 128 lncRNAs have the prognostic capability to differentiate high- and low-risk groups of patients with different cancers. Conclusion: The proposed mrCAE, which selects actual features, outperformed the AE even though it selects the latent or pseudo-features. By selecting actual features instead of pseudo-features, mrCAE can be valuable for precision medicine. The identified prognostic lncRNAs can be further studied to develop therapies for different cancers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. Finding the network biomarkers of cancers and the analysis of cancer driving genes that are involved in these biomarkers are essential for understanding the dynamics of cancer. Clusters of genes in co-expression networks are commonly known as functional units. This work is based on the hypothesis that the dense clusters or communities in the gene co-expression networks of cancer patients may represent functional units regarding cancer initiation and progression. In this study, RNA-seq gene expression data of three cancers - Breast Invasive Carcinoma (BRCA), Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (COAD) and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) - from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) are usedmore »to construct gene co-expression networks using Pearson Correlation. Six well-known community detection algorithms are applied on these networks to identify communities with five or more genes. A permutation test is performed to further mine the communities that are conserved in other cancers, thus calling them conserved communities. Then survival analysis is performed on clinical data of three cancers using the conserved community genes as prognostic co-variates. The communities that could distinguish the cancer patients between high- and low-risk groups are considered as cancer biomarkers. In the present study, 16 such network biomarkers are discovered.« less
  3. Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study is to identify biomarkers for lung cancer that can aid in its diagnosis and treatment. The gene expression profiles from GEO database were analyzed by GEO2R to identify Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) and further analyzed using Cytoscape. The data was divided into two categories: non-treatment and treatment groups. A total of 407 DEGs (254 upregulated and 153 downregulated) and 259 DEGs (124 upregulated and 135 downregulated) were isolated for non-treatment and treatment studies respectively. The significant Gene Ontologies and pathways enriched with DEGS weremore »identified using Cytoscape apps, BiNGO and ReactomeFIPlugIn, respectively. Hub genes based on network parameters - Degree, Closeness and Betweenness - were isolated using CytoHubba. In conclusion, DEGs identified in this study may play an important role in early diagnosis or as biomarkers of lung cancer.« less
  4. Two graph theoretic concepts—clique and bipartite graphs—are explored to identify the network biomarkers for cancer at the gene network level. The rationale is that a group of genes work together by forming a cluster or a clique-like structures to initiate a cancer. After initiation, the disease signal goes to the next group of genes related to the second stage of a cancer, which can be represented as a bipartite graph. In other words, bipartite graphs represent the cross-talk among the genes between two disease stages. To prove this hypothesis, gene expression values for three cancers— breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA), colorectalmore »adenocarcinoma (COAD) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)—are used for analysis. First, a co-expression gene network is generated with highly correlated gene pairs with a Pearson correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9. Second, clique structures of all sizes are isolated from the co-expression network. Then combining these cliques, three different biomarker modules are developed—maximal clique-like modules, 2-clique-1-bipartite modules, and 3-clique-2-bipartite modules. The list of biomarker genes discovered from these network modules are validated as the essential genes for causing a cancer in terms of network properties and survival analysis. This list of biomarker genes will help biologists to design wet lab experiments for further elucidating the complex mechanism of cancer.« less