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  1. We introduce in this work a unique parameter for the quantitative assessment of the intrinsic strength of the π interaction between two monomers forming a complex. The new parameter is a local intermonomer stretching force constant, based on the local mode theory, originally developed by Konkoli and Cremer, and derived from the set of nine possible intermonomer normal vibrational modes. The new local force constant was applied to a diverse set of more than 70 molecular complexes, which was divided into four groups. Group 1 includes atoms, ions, and small molecules interacting with benzene and substituted benzenes. Group 2 includes transition metal hydrides and oxides interacting with benzene while Group 3 involves ferrocenes, chromocenes, and titanium sandwich compounds. Group 4 presents an extension to oxygen π–hole interactions in comparison with in-plane hydrogen bonding. We found that the strength of the π interactions in these diverse molecular complexes can vary from weak interactions with predominantly electrostatic character, found, e.g., for argon–benzene complexes, to strong interactions with a substantial covalent nature, found, e.g., for ferrocenes; all being seamlessly described and compared with the new intermonomer local mode force constant, which also outperforms other descriptors such as an averaged force constant or a force constant guided by the electron density bond paths. We hope that our findings will inspire the community to apply the new parameter also to other intermonomer π interactions, enriching in this way the broad field of organometallic chemistry with a new efficient assessment tool. 
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  2. We present a computational study of a substrate isomerization catalyzed by Ketosteroid Isomerase based on QM/MM calculations, our Unified Reaction Valley Approach and Local Vibrational Mode Analysis. In summary, our study quantifies Talaly’s postulate that the major role of the enzyme pocket is to shield the migrating hydrogen atom from interactions with solvent molecules. Our analysis further confirms that there is no exceptional hydrogen bonding between the substrate and surrounding enzyme amino acids, which could account for lowering the activation barrier. 
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  3. Abstract

    We evaluate the correlation between binding energy (BE) and electron densityρ(r)at the bond critical point for 28 neutral hydrogen bonds, recently reported by Emamian and co‐workers (J. Comput. Chem.,2019,40, 2868). As an efficient tool, we use local stretching force constantderived from the local vibrational mode theory of Konkoli and Cremer. We compare the physical nature of BE versus, and provide an important explanation for cases with significant deviation in the BE–relation as well as in the BE–ρ(r)correlation. We also show that care has to be taken when different hydrogen bond strength measures are compared. The BE is a cumulative hydrogen bond strength measure whileis a local measure of hydrogen bond strength covering different aspects of bonding. A simplified and unified description of hydrogen bonding is not always possible and needs an in‐depth understanding of the systems involved.

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  4. Abstract

    Modern vibrational spectroscopy is more than just an analytical tool. Information about the electronic structure of a molecule, the strength of its bonds, and its conformational flexibility is encoded in the normal vibrational modes. On the other hand, normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized, which hinders the direct access to this information, attainable only via local vibration modes and associated local properties. Konkoli and Cremer provided an ingenious solution to this problem by deriving local vibrational modes from the fundamental normal modes, obtained in the harmonic approximation of the potential, via mass‐decoupled Euler–Lagrange equations. This review gives a general introduction into the local vibrational mode theory of Konkoli and Cremer, elucidating how this theory unifies earlier attempts to obtain easy to interpret chemical information from vibrational spectroscopy: (a) the local mode theory furnishes bond strength descriptors derived from force constant matrices with a physical basis, (b) provides the highly sought after extension of the Badger rule to polyatomic molecules, (c) and offers a simpler way to derive localized vibrations compared to the complex route via overtone spectroscopy. Successful applications are presented, including a new measure of bond strength, a new detailed analysis of infrared/Raman spectra, and the recent extension to periodic systems, opening a new avenue for the characterization of bonding in crystals. At the end of this review the LMODEA software is introduced, which performs the local mode analysis (with minimal computational costs) after a harmonic vibrational frequency calculation optionally using measured frequencies as additional input.

    This article is categorized under:

    Structure and Mechanism > Molecular Structures

    Theoretical and Physical Chemistry > Spectroscopy

    Software > Quantum Chemistry

    Electronic Structure Theory > Ab Initio Electronic Structure Methods

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