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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Abstract The field of particle physics is at the crossroads. The discovery of a Higgs-like boson completed the Standard Model (SM), but the lacking observation of convincing resonances Beyond the SM (BSM) offers no guidance for the future of particle physics. On the other hand, the motivation for New Physics has not diminished and is, in fact, reinforced by several striking anomalous results in many experiments. Here we summarise the status of the most significant anomalies, including the most recent results for the flavour anomalies, the multi-lepton anomalies at the LHC, the Higgs-like excess at around 96 GeV, and anomaliesmore »in neutrino physics, astrophysics, cosmology, and cosmic rays. While the LHC promises up to 4 $$\hbox {ab}^{-1}$$ ab - 1 of integrated luminosity and far-reaching physics programmes to unveil BSM physics, we consider the possibility that the latter could be tested with present data, but that systemic shortcomings of the experiments and their search strategies may preclude their discovery for several reasons, including: final states consisting in soft particles only, associated production processes, QCD-like final states, close-by SM resonances, and SUSY scenarios where no missing energy is produced. New search strategies could help to unveil the hidden BSM signatures, devised by making use of the CERN open data as a new testing ground. We discuss the CERN open data with its policies, challenges, and potential usefulness for the community. We showcase the example of the CMS collaboration, which is the only collaboration regularly releasing some of its data. We find it important to stress that individuals using public data for their own research does not imply competition with experimental efforts, but rather provides unique opportunities to give guidance for further BSM searches by the collaborations. Wide access to open data is paramount to fully exploit the LHCs potential.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. A common setting for scientific inference is the ability to sample from a high-fidelity forward model (simulation) without having an explicit probability density of the data. We propose a simulation-based maximum likelihood deconvolution approach in this setting called OMNIFOLD. Deep learning enables this approach to be naturally unbinned and (variable-, and) high-dimensional. In contrast to model parameter estimation, the goal of deconvolution is to remove detector distortions in order to enable a variety of down-stream inference tasks. Our approach is the deep learning generalization of the common Richardson-Lucy approach that is also called Iterative Bayesian Unfolding in particle physics. Wemore »show how OMNIFOLD can not only remove detector distortions, but it can also account for noise processes and acceptance effects.« less
  4. Kasieczka, Gregor ; Nachman, Benjamin ; Shih, David (Ed.)
    A new paradigm for data-driven, model-agnostic new physics searches at colliders is emerging, and aims to leverage recent breakthroughs in anomaly detection and machine learning. In order to develop and benchmark new anomaly detection methods within this framework, it is essential to have standard datasets. To this end, we have created the LHC Olympics 2020, a community challenge accompanied by a set of simulated collider events. Participants in these Olympics have developed their methods using an R&D dataset and then tested them on black boxes: datasets with an unknown anomaly (or not). This paper will review the LHC Olympics 2020more »challenge, including an overview of the competition, a description of methods deployed in the competition, lessons learned from the experience, and implications for data analyses with future datasets as well as future colliders.« less