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  1. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate super-resolution focusing of the lowest anti-symmetric (A0) mode Lamb waves in a thin aluminum plate. The subwavelength focusing/imaging is achieved by exploiting the anisotropy in phononic crystal (PC) lattices and amplification of evanescent waves. To this end, we embedded a PC flat lens in the aluminum plate, consisting of holes arranged in a square lattice formation. We revealed that the bound slab phonon modes amplify evanescent waves, as previously observed for electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Hence, the slab mode helps propagate subwavelength information through the PC lens to reach the near-field image formed due to negative refraction and result in the high resolution image. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Subwavelength imaging of elastic/acoustic waves using phononic crystals (PCs) is limited to a narrow frequency range via the two existing mechanisms that utilize either the intense Bragg scattering in the first phonon band or negative effective properties (left-handed material) in the second (or higher) phonon band. In the first phonon band, the imaging phenomenon can only exist at frequencies closer to the first Bragg band gap where the equal frequency contours (EFCs) are convex. Whereas, for the left-handed materials, the subwavelength imaging is restricted to a narrow frequency region where wave vectors in PC and background material are close to each other, which is essential for single-point image formation. In this work, we propose a PC lens for broadband subwavelength imaging of flexural waves in plates exploiting the second phonon band and the anisotropy of a PC lattice for the first time. Using a square lattice design with square-shaped EFCs, we enable the group velocity vector to always be perpendicular to the lens interface irrespective of the frequency and incidence angle; thus, resulting in a broadband imaging capability. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate subwavelength imaging using this concept over a significantly broadband frequency range.

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  3. We propose a nonlinear acoustic metasurface concept by exploiting the nonlinearity of locally resonant unit cells formed by curved beams. The analytical model is established to explore the nonlinear phenomenon, specifically the second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the nonlinear unit cell, and validated through numerical and experimental studies. By tailoring the phase gradient of the unit cells, nonlinear acoustic metasurfaces are developed to demultiplex different frequency components and achieve anomalous wavefront control of SHG in the transmitted region. To this end, we numerically demonstrate wave steering, wave focusing, and self-bending propagation. Our results show that the proposed nonlinear metasurface provides an effective and efficient platform to achieve significant SHG and separate different harmonic components for wavefront control of individual harmonics. Overall, this study offers an outlook to harness nonlinear effects for acoustic wavefront tailoring and develops potential toward advanced technologies to manipulate acoustic waves.

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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Controlling and manipulating elastic/acoustic waves via artificially structured metamaterials, phononic crystals, and metasurfaces have gained an increasing research interest in the last decades. Unlike others, a metasurface is a single layer in the host medium with an array of subwavelength-scaled patterns introducing an abrupt phase shift in the wave propagation path. In this study, an elastic metasurface composed of an array of slender beam resonators is proposed to control the elastic wavefront of low-frequency flexural waves. The phase gradient based on Snell’s law is achieved by tailoring the thickness of thin beam resonators connecting two elastic host media. Through analytical and numerical models, the phase-modulated metasurfaces are designed and verified to accomplish three dynamic wave functions, namely, deflection, non-paraxial propagation, and focusing. An oblique incident wave is also demonstrated to show the versatility of the proposed design for focusing of wave energy incident from multiple directions. Experimentally measured focusing metasurface has nearly three times wave amplification at the designed focal point which validates the design and theoretical models. Furthermore, the focusing metasurface is exploited for low-frequency energy harvesting and the piezoelectric harvester is improved by almost nine times in terms of the harvested power output as compared to the baseline harvester on the pure plate without metasurface. 
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  5. Han, Jae-Hung ; Shahab, Shima ; Yang, Jinkyu (Ed.)
  6. null (Ed.)
    Phononic crystals have the ability to manipulate the propagation of elastic waves in solids by generating unique dispersion characteristics. They can modify the conventional behavior of wave spreading in isotropic materials, known as attenuation, which negatively influences the ability of acoustic emission method to detect active defects in long-range, pipe-like structures. In this study, pipe geometry is reconfigured by adding gradient-index (GRIN) phononic crystal lens to improve the propagation distance of waves released by active defects such as crack growth and leak. The sensing element is designed to form a ring around the pipe circumference to capture the plane wave with the improved amplitude. The GRIN lens is designed by a special gradient-index profile with varying height stubs adhesively bonded to the pipe surface. The performance of GRIN lens for improving the amplitude of localized sources is demonstrated with finite element numerical model using multiphysics software. Experiments are conducted using pencil lead break simulating crack growth, as well as an orifice with pressured pipe simulating leak. The amplitude of the burst-type signal approximately doubles on average, validating the numerical findings. Hence, the axial distance between sensors can be increased proportionally in the passive sensing of defects in pipe-like geometries. 
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  7. null (Ed.)