skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Tonelli, Marco"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Serine proteases catalyze a multi-step covalent catalytic mechanism of peptide bond cleavage. It has long been assumed that serine proteases including thrombin carry-out catalysis without significant conformational rearrangement of their stable two-β-barrel structure. We present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) experiments on the thrombin-thrombomodulin (TM) complex. Thrombin promotes procoagulative fibrinogen cleavage when fibrinogen engages both the anion binding exosite 1 (ABE1) and the active site. It is thought that TM promotes cleavage of protein C by engaging ABE1 in a similar manner as fibrinogen. Thus, the thrombin-TM complex may represent the catalytically active, ABE1-engaged thrombin. Compared to apo- and active site inhibited-thrombin, we show that thrombin-TM has reduced μs-ms dynamics in the substrate binding (S1) pocket consistent with its known acceleration of protein C binding. Thrombin-TM has increased μs-ms dynamics in a β-strand connecting the TM binding site to the catalytic aspartate. Finally, thrombin-TM had doublet peaks indicative of dynamics that are slow on the NMR timescale in residues along the interface between the two β-barrels. Such dynamics may be responsible for facilitating the N-terminal product release and water molecule entry that are required for hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate.

  3. Abstract

    Human myeloid-derived growth factor (hMYDGF) is a 142-residue protein with a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence (ERS). Extracellular MYDGF mediates cardiac repair in mice after anoxic injury. Although homologs of hMYDGF are found in eukaryotes as distant as protozoans, its structure and function are unknown. Here we present the NMR solution structure of hMYDGF, which consists of a short α-helix and ten β-strands distributed in three β-sheets. Conserved residues map to the unstructured ERS, loops on the face opposite the ERS, and the surface of a cavity underneath the conserved loops. The only protein or portion of a protein known to have a similar fold is the base domain of VNN1. We suggest, in analogy to the tethering of the VNN1 nitrilase domain to the plasma membrane via its base domain, that MYDGF complexed to the KDEL receptor binds cargo via its conserved residues for transport to the ER.

  4. The small GTPase KRAS is localized at the plasma membrane where it functions as a molecular switch, coupling extracellular growth factor stimulation to intracellular signaling networks. In this process, KRAS recruits effectors, such as RAF kinase, to the plasma membrane where they are activated by a series of complex molecular steps. Defining the membrane-bound state of KRAS is fundamental to understanding the activation of RAF kinase and in evaluating novel therapeutic opportunities for the inhibition of oncogenic KRAS-mediated signaling. We combined multiple biophysical measurements and computational methodologies to generate a consensus model for authentically processed, membrane-anchored KRAS. In contrast to the two membrane-proximal conformations previously reported, we identify a third significantly populated state using a combination of neutron reflectivity, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP), and NMR. In this highly populated state, which we refer to as “membrane-distal” and estimate to comprise ∼90% of the ensemble, the G-domain does not directly contact the membrane but is tethered via its C-terminal hypervariable region and carboxymethylated farnesyl moiety, as shown by FPOP. Subsequent interaction of the RAF1 RAS binding domain with KRAS does not significantly change G-domain configurations on the membrane but affects their relative populations. Overall, our results are consistent withmore »a directional fly-casting mechanism for KRAS, in which the membrane-distal state of the G-domain can effectively recruit RAF kinase from the cytoplasm for activation at the membrane.

    « less