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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract We prove existence, uniqueness and non-negativity of solutions of certain integral equations describing the density of states u ( z ) in the spectral theory of soliton gases for the one dimensional integrable focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (fNLS) and for the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. Our proofs are based on ideas and methods of potential theory. In particular, we show that the minimising (positive) measure for a certain energy functional is absolutely continuous and its density u ( z ) ⩾ 0 solves the required integral equation. In a similar fashion we show that v ( z ), the temporal analog of u ( z ), is the difference of densities of two absolutely continuous measures. Together, the integral equations for u , v represent nonlinear dispersion relation for the fNLS soliton gas. We also discuss smoothness and other properties of the obtained solutions. Finally, we obtain exact solutions of the above integral equations in the case of a KdV condensate and a bound state fNLS condensate. Our results is a step towards a mathematical foundation for the spectral theory of soliton and breather gases, which appeared in work of El and Tovbis (2020 Phys. Rev. E 101 052207). It is expected that the presented ideas and methods will be useful for studying similar classes of integral equation describing, for example, breather gases for the fNLS, as well as soliton gases of various integrable systems. 
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    It has been shown analytically that Peregrine solitons emerge locally from a universal mechanism in the so-called semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Experimentally, this limit corresponds to the strongly nonlinear regime where the dispersion is much weaker than nonlinearity at initial time. We review here evidences of this phenomenon obtained on different experimental platforms. In particular, the spontaneous emergence of coherent structures exhibiting locally the Peregrine soliton behavior has been demonstrated in optical fiber experiments involving either single pulse or partially coherent waves. We also review theoretical and numerical results showing the link between this phenomenon and the emergence of heavy-tailed statistics (rogue waves). 
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  5. Abstract

    Givenndisjoint intervals on together withnfunctions , , and an matrix , the problem is to find anL2solution , , to the linear system , where , is a matrix of finite Hilbert transforms with defined on , and is a matrix of the corresponding characteristic functions on . Since we can interpret , as a generalized multi‐interval finite Hilbert transform, we call the formula for the solution as “the inversion formula” and the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution as the “range conditions”. In this paper we derive the explicit inversion formula and the range conditions in two specific cases: a) the matrix Θ is symmetric and positive definite, and; b) all the entries of Θ are equal to one. We also prove the uniqueness of solution, that is, that our transform is injective. In the case a), that is, when the matrix Θ is positive definite, the inversion formula is given in terms of the solution of the associated matrix Riemann–Hilbert Problem. In the case b) we reduce the multi interval problem to a problem onncopies of and then express our answers in terms of the Fourier transform. We also discuss other cases of the matrix Θ.

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