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  1. A Reynolds-averaged two-phase Eulerian model for sediment transport, SedFoam, is utilized in a twodimensional domain for a given sediment grain size, flow period, and mobility number to study the asymmetric and skewed flow effects on the sediment transport over coarse-sand migrating ripples. First, the model is validated with a full-scale water tunnel experiment of orbital ripple driven by acceleration skewed (asymmetric) oscillatory flow with good agreement in the flow velocity, net sediment transport, and ripple migration rate. The model results showed that the asymmetric flow causes a net onshore sediment transport of both suspended and near-bed load (the conventional bed load and part of the near-bed suspended load, responsible for ripple migration). The suspended load transport is driven by the “positive phase-lag” effect, while the near-bed transport is due to the large erosion of the boundary layer on the stoss flank, sediment avalanching on the lee flank, and the returning flux induced by the stoss vortex. Together, these processes result in a net onshore transport rate. In contrast, for an energetic velocity skewed (skewed) flow, the net transport rate is offshore directed. This is due to a larger offshore-directed suspended load transport rate, resulting from the “negative phase-lag” effect, compared to the onshore-directed near-bed load transport rate. Compared to the asymmetric flow, the onshore near-bed load transport (and migration) rate is limited by the larger offshore directed flux associated with returning flow on the lee side, due to a stronger lee vortex generation during the onshore flow half-cycle. In the combined asymmetric-skewed case, the near-bed load and migration rate are higher than in the asymmetric flow case. Moreover, the offshore-directed suspended load is much smaller compared to the skewed flow case due to a competition between the negative (due to velocity skewness) and positive (due to acceleration skewness) phase-lag effects. As a result, the net transport rate is onshore directed but slightly smaller than the asymmetric flow case. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    The evolution of ripple geometries and their equilibrium states due to different wave forcing parameters are investigated by a Reynolds‐averaged two‐phase model, SedFoam, in a two‐dimensional domain. Modeled ripple geometries, for a given uniform grain diameter, show a good agreement with ripple predictors that include the wave period effect explicitly, in addition to the wave orbital excursion length (or wave orbital velocity amplitude). Furthermore, using a series of numerical experiments, the ripple's response to a step‐change in the wave forcing is studied. The model is capable of simulating “splitting,” “sliding,” “merging,” and “protruding” as the ripples evolve to a new equilibrium state. The model can also simulate the transition to sheet flow in energetic wave conditions and ripple reformation from a nearly flat bed condition. Simulation results reveal that the equilibrium state is such that the “primary” vortices reach half of the ripple length. Furthermore, an analysis of the suspended load and near‐bed load ratio in the equilibrium state indicates that in the orbital ripple regime, the near‐bed load is dominant while the suspended load is conducive to the ripple decaying regime (suborbital ripples) and sheet flow condition.

     
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  3. Abstract

    A new modeling methodology for ripple dynamics driven by oscillatory flows using a Eulerian two‐phase flow approach is presented in order to bridge the research gap between near‐bed sediment transport via ripple migration and suspended load transport dictated by ripple induced vortices. Reynolds‐averaged Eulerian two‐phase equations for fluid phase and sediment phase are solved in a two‐dimensional vertical domain with akεclosure for flow turbulence and particle stresses closures for short‐lived collision and enduring contact. The model can resolve full profiles of sediment transport without making conventional near‐bed load and suspended load assumptions. The model is validated with an oscillating tunnel experiment of orbital ripple driven by a Stokes second‐order (onshore velocity skewed) oscillatory flow with a good agreement in the flow velocity and sediment concentration. Although the suspended sediment concentration far from the ripple in the dilute region was underpredicted by the present model, the model predicts an onshore ripple migration rate that is in very good agreement with the measured value. Another orbital ripple case driven by symmetric sinusoidal oscillatory flow is also conducted to contrast the effect of velocity skewness. The model is able to capture a net offshore‐directed suspended load transport flux due to the asymmetric primary vortex consistent with laboratory observation. More importantly, the model can resolve the asymmetry of onshore‐directed near‐bed sediment flux associated with more intense boundary layer flow speed‐up during onshore flow cycle and sediment avalanching near the lee ripple flank which force the onshore ripple migration.

     
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  4. Abstract

    In field observations from a sinuous estuary, the drag coefficientbased on the momentum balance was in the range of, much greater than expected from bottom friction alone.also varied at tidal and seasonal timescales.was greater during flood tides than ebbs, most notably during spring tides. The ebb tidewas negatively correlated with river discharge, while the flood tideshowed no dependence on discharge. The large values ofare explained by form drag from flow separation at sharp channel bends. Greater water depths during flood tides corresponded with increased values of, consistent with the expected depth dependence for flow separation, as flow separation becomes stronger in deeper water. Additionally, the strength of the adverse pressure gradient downstream of the bend apex, which is indicative of flow separation, correlated withduring flood tides. Whilegenerally increased with water depth,decreased for the highest water levels that corresponded with overbank flow. The decrease inmay be due to the inhibition of flow separation with flow over the vegetated marsh. The dependence ofduring ebbs on discharge corresponds with the inhibition of flow separation by a favoring baroclinic pressure gradient that is locally generated at the bend apex due to curvature‐induced secondary circulation. This effect increases with stratification, which increases with discharge. Additional factors may contribute to the high drag, including secondary circulation, multiple scales of bedforms, and shallow shoals, but the observations suggest that flow separation is the primary source.

     
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